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   2023| January-March  | Volume 69 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 10, 2023

 
 
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EDUCATION FORUM
Competency-based medical education and the McNamara fallacy: Assessing the important or making the assessed important?
T Singh, N Shah
January-March 2023, 69(1):35-40
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_337_22  PMID:36255018
The McNamara fallacy refers to the tendency to focus on numbers, metrics, and quantifiable data while disregarding the meaningful qualitative aspects. The existence of such a fallacy in medical education is reviewed in this paper. Competency-based medical education (CBME) has been introduced in India with the goal of having Indian Medical Graduates competent in five different roles – Clinician, Communicator, Leader and member of the health care team, Professional, and Lifelong learner. If we only focus on numbers and structure to assess the competencies pertaining to these roles, we would be falling prey to the McNamara fallacy. To assess these roles in the real sense, we need to embrace the qualitative assessment methods and appreciate their value in competency-based education. This can be done by using various workplace-based assessments, choosing tools based on educational impact rather than psychometric properties, using narratives and descriptive evaluation, giving grades instead of marks, and improving the quality of the questions asked in various exams. There are challenges in adopting qualitative assessment starting with being able to move past the objective–subjective debate, to developing expertise in conducting and documenting such assessment, and adding the rigor of qualitative research methods to enhance its credibility. The perspective on assessment thus needs a paradigm shift – we need to assess the important rather than just making the assessed important; and this would be crucial for the success of the CBME curriculum.
  3,456 67 -
ADR REPORT
Cefoperazone/sulbactam-induced hemolytic anemia
XM Sun, LH Liu, Q Wu, HG Wang
January-March 2023, 69(1):46-49
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_1335_20  PMID:34528516
Drug-induced hemolytic anemia (DIHA) is a rare complication of drug therapy and usually underdiagnosed. Cefoperazone/sulbactam is a compound prepared from the third generation of cephalosporin and β-lactamase inhibitor. There are limited data of DIHA induced from cefoperazone/sulbactam. A 93-year-old female patient, who had an operation on the biliary tract 3 months ago, was admitted to our hospital with an abdominal infection. After cefoperazone/sulbactam was given as anti-infection treatment, the patient developed hemolytic anemia on the third day. Cefoperazone/sulbactam was discontinued and replaced with meropenem. Subsequently the level of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit returned to normal. Clinicians should pay attention to monitoring the possible adverse reactions during the use of cefoperazone/sulbactam and should be aware of the occurrence of DIHA, so as to give timely treatment.
  2,480 42 -
EDITORIAL
The art of referencing: Well begun is half done!
CA Divecha, MS Tullu, S Karande
January-March 2023, 69(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_908_22  PMID:36629224
  2,478 12 -
EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES
Drug-induced hemolytic anemia due to cefoperazone-sulbactum: Challenges in reaching diagnosis
SV Jalgaonkar, UI Parmar
January-March 2023, 69(1):9-10
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_248_22  PMID:36571331
  1,880 13 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ultrasound-guided dry needling of masticatory muscles in trigeminal neuralgia – A case series of 35 patients
L Vas, S Phanse, KS Pawar, R Pai, M Pattnaik
January-March 2023, 69(1):11-20
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_797_21  PMID:36453389
Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) is considered a sensory neuropathy. However, reports of pain on chewing/speaking suggest a masticatory myofascial involvement. Objective: To examine the effect of ultrasound-guided dry needling (USGDN), which deactivates myofascial trigger points in masticatory, neck, and facial muscles on TGN symptoms. Methods: Charts of 35 patients treated for TGN were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment was USGDN alone or combined with trigeminal ganglion/mandibular nerve pulsed radiofrequency (PRF), followed by yoga mudras to stretch masticatory and facial muscles. Patients were followed for 1–8 years. Outcome parameters were reduction of medications with reduction in neuralgic attack frequency and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score. Results: 23 patients (65.7%) received USGDN alone, 12 patients (34.3%) received PRF treatment before USGDN. A significant reduction in the mean (SD) NRS (5.7 [1.2] vs 8.8 [1.6]; P < .001) and neuralgic attack frequency (47 [27] vs 118 [70] attacks/day; P < .001) was seen after PRF compared with baseline, respectively. Following USGDN, the mean (SD) NRS further decreased significantly to 1.0 (0.9) (P < .001). USGDN alone produced a similar improvement in the NRS (8.9 [1.5] at baseline reduced to 0.6 [0.7] post-USGDN; P < .001). Patients in both groups reported a cessation in neuralgic attacks after USGDN. Post-USGDN, 18/27 patients completely discontinued medication, with the mean (SD) carbamazepine dose significantly reducing from 716.7 (260.9) mg/day at baseline to 113.0 (250.2) mg/day post-USGDN (P < .001). Conclusion: Decisive relief of TGN by USGDN suggests neuromyalgia involving masticatory muscles. Prospective, controlled studies could confirm these findings.
  1,854 18 -
Economic burden of limited English proficiency: A prevalence-based cost of illness study of its direct, indirect, and intangible costs
S Karande, NJ Gogtay, T More, RF Sholapurwala, S Pandit, S Waghmare
January-March 2023, 69(1):27-34
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_445_22  PMID:36367030
Aims: The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the economic burden of limited English proficiency (LEP) by estimating its direct, indirect, and intangible costs. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of variables on the economic burden. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional single-arm descriptive study conducted in a learning disability clinic in a public medical college in Mumbai. Subjects and Methods: The study cases (aged ≥8 years and ≤18 years) were recruited by non-probability sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the parent to collect data related to direct and indirect costs. Intangible cost data were collected by documenting the willingness-to-pay value using the contingent valuation technique. Statistical Analysis Used: A multivariate regression model was used to assess the impact of predictor variables on the costs. Results: The direct, indirect, and intangible costs due to LEP were Indian Rupees (INR) 826,736, 3,828,220, and 1,906,300, respectively. Indirect costs comprised 82.2% of the total costs. Expenditure on tuition and remedial education comprised 39.86% and 14.08% of the indirect and direct costs, respectively. The average annual learning disability clinic costs were INR 2,169,146. The average annual total costs per student were INR 42,102. Higher socioeconomic status was predictive of increased “indirect costs”, “total costs”, and “intangible costs.” Conclusion: LEP is a cost-intensive condition (indirect > intangible > direct costs). Non-medical costs are the costliest component of direct costs. Parental loss of earnings is the costliest component of indirect costs.
  1,846 13 -
EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES
The McNamara fallacy in medical education: Spot it, stop it
MA Hirkani
January-March 2023, 69(1):7-8
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_765_22  PMID:36629225
  1,834 4 -
RESEARCH LETTER
Faculty-or senior resident-led SNAPPS for postgraduate teaching in pediatrics
A Dabas, D Mishra, Swarnim , R Saxena
January-March 2023, 69(1):43-45
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_144_22  PMID:35708397
This was an educational intervention on postgraduates using SNAPPS (Summarize narrow, analyze, probe, plan, self-directed learning) showing comparable median (interquartile range) satisfaction scores with faculty or senior residents as 4 (3,5) and 4 (4, 4.25); respectively, P = 0.79. Further training of senior residents in medical education will enable them to participate efficiently and actively in postgraduate teaching.
  1,584 39 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An audit of questions asked by participants during the informed consent process for a phase 2/3 COVID-19 vaccine regulatory study at a tertiary referral centre
VL Chaudhari, CJ Godbole, SR Bendkhale, NN Desai, NJ Gogtay, UM Thatte
January-March 2023, 69(1):21-26
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_1216_21  PMID:36255013
Objective: To evaluate questions asked during the informed consent process by adult participants in a COVID-19 vaccine regulatory study conducted at our center in 2020. Methods: After approval by the IEC, informed consent documents and consent narratives were evaluated. We collated the total number and nature of questions. We then looked at the association between education, gender, socio-economic status, employment status, the language of consent, and number of questions. Between-group comparison (female vs male, unemployed vs employed, primary school vs secondary school vs graduate vs post-graduates, upper vs upper-middle vs middle vs lower middle vs lower) for the number of questions asked was done using univariate analysis followed by multivariate regression analysis with post hoc Tukey's test. Independent variables were gender, employment status, education and socioeconomic status and the dependent variable was the number of questions asked by the participant. All analyses were done at 5% significance. Content analysis was done in addition by creating categories after evaluation and coding them. Results: A total of N = 129 consents from the same number of participants were evaluated. A total of N = 127/129 participants asked at least one question. Sixty-seven percent of participants asked questions related to the study procedure, followed by 44.9% of participants who asked questions related to the safety of vaccine or placebo. A total of N = 295 questions were asked by the 127 participants. In content analysis, 149/295 (50.5%) questions were on study-related procedures followed by one quarter 76/295 (25.8%) based on safety associated with Investigational Product. Very few participants [2.4%] asked about post-trial access as the regulatory trial was a placebo-controlled trial. None of the independent variables were found to be associated with the number of questions. Conclusion: The majority of the questions asked by the participants were about study-related procedures and vaccine safety. No association was found between any of the independent variables and the number of questions asked. However, there were differences in the demographics of the trial participants between the pandemic and pre-pandemic era.
  1,505 27 -
GRAND ROUND CASE
Lunar lenses – Acquired lens colobomas
S Choudhary, D Katoch, SS Pandav, S Kaushik
January-March 2023, 69(1):41-42
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_1145_21  PMID:35708396
Acquired lens colobomas secondary to ocular surgeries are scarcely described in the literature. We describe two cases of acquired lens coloboma in two infants with glaucoma who underwent ocular surgery. The coloboma in the first case was likely because of direct trauma to the lens zonules during an optical iridectomy with a vitrectomy cutter, resulting in localized loss of zonules and consequently localized lens coloboma. The coloboma in the second case was noticed during examination under anesthesia after scleral buckling and cryopexy for retinal detachment. The cause for coloboma development in this case could be disruption of the lens zonules because of stretching of the globe after scleral buckle surgery or because of injury to zonules during scleral buckling and the cryopexy procedure.
  1,370 24 -
CASE REPORTS
Isolated bilateral lateral geniculate body necrosis following acute pancreatitis: A rare cause of bilateral loss of vision in a young female
S Murugesan, E Senthilkumar, K Kumar, VM Shah
January-March 2023, 69(1):53-55
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_1134_21  PMID:36453385
Sudden bilateral visual loss because of bilateral lateral geniculate body (LGB) necrosis is a very rare entity. The mechanisms causing these isolated lesions have still not been fully understood. We report a case of sudden loss of vision in a 22-year-old female following an attack of acute pancreatitis, just after starting the paleo diet. Neuroimaging revealed bilateral LGB necrosis. Multidisciplinary approach was sought and she was subsequently managed successfully. On follow-up, her visual acuity showed improvement, and neuroimaging revealed resolution of hyperintensities in bilateral LGB with residual blooming suggestive of old hemorrhagic gliosis. The possible reasons for isolated lesions of the LGB are hemorrhagic infarction and osmotic demyelination. In the present case, we postulate a vascular pathology, possibly hypo-perfusion because of shock following acute pancreatitis.
  1,229 23 -
CASE SNIPPETS
An unusual presentation of seronegative Sjögren's syndrome
M Chaudhari, N Agarwal
January-March 2023, 69(1):59-60
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_212_22  PMID:36571330
  1,241 8 -
CASE REPORTS
Progressive nodule-like lesions on bilateral lower limbs
FA Yang, KS Cheng, JW Chou
January-March 2023, 69(1):50-52
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_136_22  PMID:36537394
Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare disease characterized by subcutaneous fat necrosis. It could be the result of an associated pancreatic tumor. Herein, we reported a 63-year-old man who presented with progressive bilateral lower limb edema accompanied with nodule-like lesions for 1 month. His serum lipase was 3,927 U/L (normal, 0–160 U/L). Histopathology of the skin specimen revealed lobular panniculitis, favoring a diagnosis of pancreatic panniculitis. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a huge mass in his left upper quadrant. Endoscopic ultrasound showed a mixed echoic tumor, measuring 11.9 × 7.8 cm in dimensions, originating from the pancreatic tail. Biopsy performed via an endoscopic ultrasound showed a poorly differentiated acinar cell carcinoma. Because of the unresectable status of the tumor, the patient underwent chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine. After chemotherapy, his skin lesions improved progressively. It is important to treat pancreatic panniculitis with its underlying pancreatic disease.
  1,230 17 -
CASE SNIPPETS
Gold thread acupuncture for chronic pain in multiple joints
GW Kim, YJ Yun, JH Seo, MH Ko
January-March 2023, 69(1):61-62
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_324_22  PMID:36511020
  1,054 25 -
Tracheobronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma mimicking bronchial asthma
H Ishikawa, H Satoh, N Hizawa
January-March 2023, 69(1):56-58
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_201_22  PMID:36571332
  1,040 9 -
Appendiceal actinomycosis presenting as acute appendicitis: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge
SP Tendulkar, PA Jain, MG Mehta, S George
January-March 2023, 69(1):63-64
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_196_22  PMID:36537395
  962 8 -
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow