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   2008| January-March  | Volume 54 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 20, 2008

 
 
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CLINICAL SIGNS
Cherry-red spot
JC Suvarna, SA Hajela
January-March 2008, 54(1):54-57
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39196  PMID:18296811
  34,609 645 13
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Stomaplasty-anterior advancement flap and lateral splaying of trachea, a simple and effective technique
NP Trivedi, D Patel, K Thankappan, S Iyer, MA Kuriakose
January-March 2008, 54(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39185  PMID:18296800
Background: Stomal stenosis after laryngectomy is a common and distressing complication. Once sets in, it is generally progressive, causes problems and needs active intervention. Aim: To evaluate effectiveness of new simple method of stomaplasty in solving troublesome complication of stoma stenosis. Settings and Design: Charts of eight patients who underwent modified stomaplasty and completed 1 year were reviewed. Materials and Methods: A modified anterior advancement flap and lateral splaying of trachea for stoma plasty are described. This involves excision of scar tissue of the anterior two-third of trachea and interposition of the defect with an inferiorly based triangular skin flap. The tracheo-esophageal-prosthesis (TEP) site is left untouched. Statistical Analysis: Outcome were measured in relation with need for further stenting or any other revision procedure required and ability to use TEP for speech production. Results: Eight patients underwent stoma revision surgery. Median preprocedure stoma diameter was 10 mm vertically (range 8-12 mm) and 6 mm horizontally (range 5-10 mm). This could be improved to 25 mm (range 22-30 mm) vertically and 16 mm (range 14-20 mm) horizontally after stoma revision. At 1-year follow-up, the median measurements were 20 mm (range 16-26) vertically and 14 mm (range 12-18) horizontally. Postprocedure, one patient required intermittent stenting at nighttime. All patients could use the TEP effectively. One patient who underwent salvage laryngectomy following chemoradiotherapy developed flap dehiscence. Conclusions: This is a simple and effective technique for stomaplasty. All patients treated with this technique had adequately large stoma for breathing and use of TEP.
  34,419 272 4
REVIEW ARTICLE
Implications of HLA sequence-based typing in transplantation
U Shankarkumar, A Pawar, K Ghosh
January-March 2008, 54(1):41-44
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39192  PMID:18296807
Serology-based conventional microlymphocytotoxicity HLA typing method, which has been regarded as the gold standard in organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, has been replaced now by DNA-based typing. Many laboratories all over the world have already switched over to molecular methods. Microlymphocytotoxicity-based tissue typing was done using commercial sera, while the molecular typing by genomic DNA based. DNA quality and its quantity obtained using various DNA extraction protocols was found to be an important factor in the molecular method of tissue typing in transplant outcome. Many polymerase chain reaction-based molecular techniques have been adopted with far reaching clinical outcome. The sequence-based typing (SBT) has been the ultimate technique, which has been of the highest reliability in defining the HLA alleles. The nonavailability of specific HLA antisera from native populations, large number of blank alleles yet to be defined and comparable low resolution of HLA alleles in SSP or SSOP technique, suggests that highly refined DNA-based methods like SBT should be used as an adjunct to HLA serology and/or low/intermediate/high resolution HLA typing in order to achieve a better transplant outcome.
  15,043 686 8
DRUG REVIEW
Ramelteon: A melatonin receptor agonist for the treatment of insomnia
V Devi, PK Shankar
January-March 2008, 54(1):45-48
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39193  PMID:18296808
Ramelteon is a novel MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor selective agonist recently approved for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty in sleep onset. It is a nonscheduled drug since it lacks the potential for abuse and does not interact with neurotransmitter receptors most associated with these phenomena. Although the effects of ramelteon use >5 weeks are unknown, the available data confirms its safety and efficacy for short-term use. Clinical use and future research should uncover more information about ramelteon's properties.
  14,128 773 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Immunophenotypic characterisation of peripheral T lymphocytes in pulmonary tuberculosis
FM Al Majid, AA Abba
January-March 2008, 54(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39182  PMID:18296797
Background: The cellular immune response plays an important role in determining the outcome of infection and disease in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Many studies of these disease interactions yield contradictory results. Aim: This study aims at determining the changes that take place in the subpopulations of T lymphocytes in the blood of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was done at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Flow cytometry was used to determine the absolute numbers and percentages of T CD3, T CD4, T CD8, T CD19 and natural killer (NK) T cells in 54 patients with active pulmonary TB before the commencement of treatment and in 25 healthy PPD negative volunteers. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 11.5) was used for analysis. Results: There were significant differences in the values of CD3, CD4 and NK T cells among the groups. The numbers of CD3 and CD4 cells were lower in subjects than in controls [1091.9 321.4 vs. 1364.6 251.2; P < 0.001 and 639.8 285 vs. 822 189.9; P < 0.004, respectively] while numbers of NK T cells were much higher in patients than in controls (410.7 286 vs. 182.3 140; P < 0.001). The numbers of CD8 cells were not significantly changed with disease (609 233.5 in subjects and 613.4 170.3 in controls P = 0.761). Conclusion: There are significant changes in the cellular immune response particularly affecting the CD3, CD4 and NK T cells with the development of pulmonary TB. Therefore, further studies of these changes may have important implications on the development of diagnostic tools, vaccines and treatment modalities.
  10,673 586 6
CASE REPORTS
Citrobacter freundii infection in glutaric aciduria type 1: Adding insult to injury
C Mukhopadhyay, A Dey, I Bairy
January-March 2008, 54(1):35-36
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39189  PMID:18296804
Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an inborn error of organic acid metabolism, where the brain is the principal organ affected with exposure to toxic metabolic product, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OHGA). A 2-year-old boy with GA1 and delayed developmental milestones had an acute neurological crisis leading to massive brain abscess with Citrobacter freundi infection, a rare cause of neonatal meningitis and often associated with brain abscess. Both 3-OHGA and C. freundii can damage the blood-brain barrier and can cause significant trauma which demands immediate and appropriate management. Encephalopathic manifestations of GA1 may consequently increase the risk of meningeal infection and it has not been previously documented.
  9,722 208 2
Repeated fracture of pacemaker leads with migration into the pulmonary circulation and temporary pacemaker wire insertion via the azygous vein
AR Udyavar, UM Pandurangi, K Latchumanadhas, AS Mullasari
January-March 2008, 54(1):28-31
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39187  PMID:18296802
Repeated implantation of pacemaker in the same patient is a common occurrence because of the increased longevity of patients. However, repeated lead fracture in the same patient and migration of the pacemaker lead into the pulmonary circulation is rare. We describe a 56-year- old gentleman who had undergone pacemaker implantations thrice due to repeated lead fractures (thrice) and also had migration of the pacemaker lead into the pulmonary circulation. He also had an azygous vein which was noticed while placing the temporary pacemaker wire.
  9,115 182 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Relationship between N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide and extensive echocardiographic parameters in mild to moderate aortic stenosis
M Cemri, U Arslan, SA Kocaman, A Cengel
January-March 2008, 54(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39183  PMID:18296798
Context: The N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide levels (NT pro-BNP) are increased in cases of volume or pressure overload. Aims: To examine NT pro-BNP levels and enclose whether any relationship is present between the levels of NT pro-BNP and extensive echocardiographic parameters in asymptomatic patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis (AS). Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study about the NT pro-BNP levels was conducted in 37 asymptomatic AS patients and compared with 40 controls. Methods: Patients <70 years old with mild to moderate AS with a peak transaortic gradient >20 mm Hg in transthoracic echocardiogram were included in our study. Extensive echocardiographic parameters and NT pro-BNP levels were obtained from these patients and these indices were compared with the control population selected from the patients who had similar clinical characteristics with the AS patients. Statistical Analysis: NT-proBNP values were found to be distribution free. Spearman correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis. Mean values were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The NT pro-BNP levels were increased in patients with AS (median; interquartiles range: 686 [449-855] pg/mL vs. 140 [116-150] pg/mL, P < 0.001). Among patients with AS, when correlation analysis was performed mean transaortic gradient, aortic valve area index, myocardial performance index, E m /A m ratio, left-ventricular mass index (LVMI) and E/E m ratio had correlations (r=0.38, P = 0.026; r=-0.46, P =0.008; r=0.19, P =0,049; r=-0.22, P =0.04, r=0.49, P =0.003 and r=0.53, P <0.001 respectively) with plasma NT pro-BNP levels. The LVMI (r = 0.49, P = 0.003) and E/E m ratio (r = 0.53 P < 0.001) have the strongest correlations when compared to other parameters. Conclusion: Plasma NT pro-BNP levels are increased in even asymptomatic patients with AS and correlated with several echocardiographic parameters related to severity of AS and degree of diastolic dysfunction. As a result, NT pro-BNP levels may be used in the follow-up of asymptomatic patients having mild to moderate AS.
  8,700 299 16
CASE REPORTS
Rhodotorula mucilaginosa as a cause of persistent femoral nonunion
R Goyal, S Das, A Arora, A Aggarwal
January-March 2008, 54(1):25-27
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39186  PMID:18296801
We present a case of postoperative infection which presented as nonunion fracture femur in a 30-year-old man due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa . This is the first report of Rhodotorula infection in a patient with fracture nonunion. The patient underwent repeated surgical debridement and received intensive antibiotic therapy before the diagnosis was made. The diagnosis could have been made earlier if the fungal etiology had been suspected earlier. Early suspicion and diagnosis of infection with atypical yeasts could be under-reported because of difficulties in accurate diagnosis and a tendency of attributing isolates to specimen contamination.
  7,998 206 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Detection of Rh antibodies using two low ionic diluents: Extension of the incubation time and the number of Rh antibodies detected
YA Skaik
January-March 2008, 54(1):4-6
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39181  PMID:18296796
Background: Low ionic strength solution (LISS) is used to increase the rate of association of antibody to the corresponding antigen during antibody detection tests. A number of LISSs are available on the market. Aims: The efficiency of two commercial low ionic diluents, DiaMed ID-CellStab and Inverclyde LISS were assessed using the DiaMed-ID LISS Coombs microtube column system and an incubation time varying from 15 to 35 min. Materials and Methods: One-hundred samples containing five Rh antibodies (anti-D, anti-C, anti-E, anti-c and anti-e) were tested against commercial red cells using the two low ionic diluents after 15, 25 and 35 min. Results: The Inverclyde LISS detected 91, 95 and 96% of the Rh antibodies compared to 78, 79 and 83% for ID-CellStab after 15, 25 and 35 min incubation time, respectively, for both methods. Conclusions: The Inverclyde LISS is a more suitable and efficient diluent than ID-CellStab for the detection of Rh antibodies. The sensitivity of Rh antibody detection increased for the both methods as the incubation time increased.
  7,719 417 2
CASE REPORTS
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis complicated by aspergillosis: A case report with review of literature
S Kuruvilla, R Saldanha, LD Joseph
January-March 2008, 54(1):32-34
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39188  PMID:18296803
Pulmonary extension of recurrent invasive papillomatosis often poses a diagnostic challenge to the examining bronchoscopist, pathologist, radiologist and surgeon, in distinguishing it as a benign lesion that is confined to the mucosa and extending along the branches of the tracheobronchial tree from true invasion of a malignant tumor. We document here a case of recurrent invasive respiratory papillomatosis which initially presented as a laryngeal papilloma. After multiple recurrences, the patient presented with bronchopulmonary involvement, complicated by invasive aspergillosis in a non-immunocompromised setting.
  7,124 258 1
IMAGES IN PATHOLOGY
Intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with ductal carcinoma in situ in a male breast
DM Dragoumis, AP Tsiftsoglou
January-March 2008, 54(1):39-40
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39191  PMID:18296806
  6,766 260 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Relative efficiency of polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay in determination of viral etiology in congenital cataract in infants
G Shyamala, P Sowmya, HN Madhavan, J Malathi
January-March 2008, 54(1):17-20
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39184  PMID:18296799
Background: Perinatal viral infections of fetus are among the leading causes of congenital cataract and identifying the viral etiology is important. Objectives: To detect the presence of Rubella virus (RV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in lens aspirate specimens obtained from patients with congenital cataract and relate the results with serology. Setting and Design: Prospective study carried out in tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Fifty lens aspirates from 50 infants with congenital cataract were subjected to HSV, RV isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of HSV and CMV. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied for RV detection. Peripheral blood specimens were screened for anti-HSV, RV and CMV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results: Rubella virus was detected in nine (18%) lens aspirates, by nRT-PCR which includes six positive by culture. HSV-2 DNA was detected in nine other lens aspirates, while CMV was not detected by PCR. Serological results did not correlate with the presence of viruses in the lens aspirates. This is the first report of detection of HSV-2 DNA in cases of congenital cataract. Conclusions: Cytomegalovirus may not be playing a significant role in causation of congenital cataract. The role of serology in identifying causative viral infection for congenital cataract needs to be re-evaluated.
  6,447 316 4
EDITORIAL
Clinical Trial Registry - India (CTR-I): A meaningful initiative. How to take it forward?
SB Bavdekar
January-March 2008, 54(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39180  PMID:18296795
  6,239 495 2
LETTERS
Bacterial endocarditis due to Group C streptococcus
T Menon, B Nandhakumar, V Jaganathan, S Shanmugasundaram, B Malathy, B Nisha
January-March 2008, 54(1):64-65
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39207  PMID:18296820
  6,501 219 -
IMAGES IN RADIOLOGY
Chordoma: A rare presentation as solitary ivory vertebra
S Kumar, R Hasan
January-March 2008, 54(1):37-38
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39190  PMID:18296805
  6,425 281 3
LETTERS
Postpartum Group B streptococcal meningitis
IA George, JE Mathews, KP Mathews
January-March 2008, 54(1):65-66
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39208  PMID:18296821
  6,358 205 5
VIEW POINT
Documenting indications for cesarean deliveries
P Kushtagi, S Guruvare
January-March 2008, 54(1):52-53
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39195  PMID:18296810
  5,932 246 4
STUDENTS CORNER
The internet: Revolutionizing medical research for novices and virtuosos alike
KS Jethwani, HS Chandwani
January-March 2008, 54(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39194  PMID:18296809
  5,737 250 2
LETTERS
Castleman's disease in interpectoral lymph node mimicking mammary gland neoplasia
BB da Silva, PV Lopes-Costa, PM Melo, CG Pires
January-March 2008, 54(1):63-64
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39206  PMID:18296819
  4,623 150 1
Snap sound and detumescence: Fracture penis
R Mongha, AK Kundu
January-March 2008, 54(1):60-60
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39201  PMID:18296815
  4,564 195 -
Central retinal vein occlusion associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome
Niranjan Kumar, Khalid Al Sabti
January-March 2008, 54(1):58-58
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39197  PMID:18296813
  4,237 180 -
Aortic thrombus during invasive aspergillosis in a kidney transplant recipient
E Abderrahim, Abdallah T Ben, H Aouina, Maiz H Ben, A Kheder
January-March 2008, 54(1):62-63
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39205  PMID:18296818
  4,207 131 4
Simultaneous umbilical hernia repair in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Is obesity a risk factor for recurrence?
Srijit Das
January-March 2008, 54(1):58-59
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39199  PMID:18296812
  4,109 192 2
Model for end-stage liver disease and outcome of portosystemic encephalopathy
M Khurram, K Ahmed, MM Arshad, HB Khar, Z Hasan
January-March 2008, 54(1):61-62
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39204  PMID:18296816
  4,117 135 -
Paraphenylene diamine-induced acute renal failure: Prevention is the key
P Bhargava
January-March 2008, 54(1):60-61
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39202  PMID:18296814
  3,538 127 3
Inadequate awareness of the role of erythrocytic parameters in the detection of beta-thalassemia minor
G Ntaios, A Chatzinikolaou
January-March 2008, 54(1):61-61
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39203  PMID:18296817
  3,423 148 4
Authors' reply
E Kamer, HR Unalp, H Derici, T Tansug, MA Onal
January-March 2008, 54(1):59-59
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39200  
  3,212 112 -
Author's reply
SA Issa, Q Qasem
January-March 2008, 54(1):58-58
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.39198  
  2,567 94 -
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow