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   2004| July-September  | Volume 50 | Issue 3  
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Ultra-Rapid Opioid Detoxification: Current Status and Controversies
J Singh, Debasish Basu
July-September 2004, 50(3):227-232
Opioid dependence is a major health problem and a cause of increasing concern to physicians and other health professionals worldwide. A crucial first step in intervention is detoxification. Recent trends in medical practice have seen the emergence of newer techniques that claim to accelerate the detoxification procedure and ensure prevention of relapse by rapid induction onto maintenance treatment with opioid antagonists such as naltrexone. This review delves into the theoretical and methodological aspects related to ultra-rapid opioid detoxification (opioid detoxification procedure using opioid antagonists, performed under general anaesthesia or heavy sedation) and discusses the status of the same in light of the available evidence regarding its applicability, safety and effectiveness. Although useful in some respects (especially in completion rates for detoxification and subsequent induction onto naltrexone maintenance), the justification of this procedure lies in (a) the resolution of the ethical conflicts surrounding the procedure and (b) conduction of methodologically sound long-term studies to demonstrate greater efficacy over routine/standard detoxification procedures beyond the short-term detoxification period.
  29,087 406 7
Lateral cervical cyst with unsuspected metastasis from an occult tonsillar carcinoma
G Pavlakis, GH Sakorafas, George K Anagnostopoulos, K Grigoriadis, G Symeonidis
July-September 2004, 50(3):202-204
Lateral cervical cysts containing squamous cell carcinoma is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinician since they usually represent a cystic metastasis from an occult carcinoma. Various imaging modalities or even blind biopsies will help identify the primary tumour. If the primary tumour is identified, an appropriate treatment decision can be made that incorporates both the primary tumour and the cervical node. If the primary remains unidentified, the neck is treated with a modified or radical neck dissection, depending on the extent of metastatic disease, and radiation therapy is administered to Waldeyer’s ring and both necks. We present in this paper, a case with a large cervical cyst where histology showed the presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the wall of the cyst. A diagnostic evaluation of the patient was negative. Blind biopsies of the right tonsil revealed occult squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated by combined chemo/radiotherapy and she is doing well nine months following excision of the mass. The relevant literature is briefly reviewed.
  21,925 159 -
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and pain - A review of the disease from aetiology, evaluation, past surgical treatment options to current practice
Ketan K Badani, AK Hemal, M Menon
July-September 2004, 50(3):222-226
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), often referred to as “adult” polycystic kidney disease, is one of the commonest hereditary disorders. It affects approximately 4 to 6 million individuals worldwide. The disease progresses to end-stage renal disease and it accounts for 10-15% of patients requiring dialysis in the United States. A comprehensive Medline search for aetiology, evaluation, screening, cellular biology, and treatment was utilized to locate, extract, and synthesize relevant data with respect to this topic. Special attention was focused on urologic literature and surgical textbooks regarding operative treatment of pain associated with ADPKD. Now, patients with ADPKD have more treatment options. More specifically, several therapeutic alternatives are now available for the management of pain in these patients. A recent review of literature supports the performance of open or laparoscopic cyst decortication procedures for control of pain and infection without the worry of causing further renal impairment in those with preserved renal function.
  20,335 540 5
An infant with pericardial effusion
MS Tullu, Pradeep Vaideeswar, CT Deshmukh, KR Lahiri, SP Pandit, RA Chaturvedi
July-September 2004, 50(3):211-214
  18,965 168 -
Association between glycaemic control and quality of life in diabetes mellitus
Chuen-Yen Lau, AK Qureshi, SG Scott
July-September 2004, 50(3):189-194
Background: Relationship between quality of life (QOL) and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) amongst diabetics in the community setting is unclear. Aims: Assess the association between QOL and change in HbA1c in diabetic patients over one year. Settings and Design: Cohort study of patients from four community clinics in California, USA. Methods: Diabetic patients identified from databases using International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) codes were asked to complete Short Form 36 (SF-36), which measures health-related QOL, and invited to attend monthly diabetes workshops. From December 2000 to December 2001, data were collected on multiple parameters, including HbA1c. SF-36 surveys were re-collected at project termination. Statistical Analysis: Regression analysis was used to correlate change in HbA1c with change in QOL physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores, while considering potential confounders. Results: Of 1679 eligible patients, 380 completed SF-36 at project initiation. 243 of those completed SF-36 at project termination. Pre and post HbA1c data were available for 170 of the 243 who completed SF-36 at both times. Average MCS increased by 8.46% and PCS decreased by 2.24%. After adjustment, a 5% decrease in HbA1c values was associated with a 1% increase in MCS. No association between changes in HbA1c and PCS was observed. Conclusions: Association between better HbA1c and improved mental, but not physical, QOL may reflect physical inconvenience of increased regimen complexity and mental empowerment from proactive disease management. Larger cohort studies with longer follow-up are needed to further elucidate the relationship between glycemic control and QOL.
  18,481 492 14
Predictors of hearing loss in school entrants in a developing country
Bola O Olusanya, AA Okolo, AA Adeosun
July-September 2004, 50(3):173-179
Background: Hearing loss is a prevalent and significant disability that impairs functional development and educational attainment of school children in developing countries. Lack of a simple and practical screening protocol often deters routine and systematic hearing screening at school entry. Aim: To identify predictors of hearing loss for a practical screening model in school-aged children. Settings and Design: Community-based, retrospective case-control study of school entrants in an inner city. Methods: Results from the audiologic and non-audiologic examination of 50 hearing impaired children in randomly selected mainstream schools were compared with those of a control group of 150 normal hearing children, matched for age and sex from the same population. The non-audiologic evaluation consisted of medical history, general physical examination, anthropometry, motor skills, intelligence and visual acuity while the audiologic assessment consisted of otoscopy, audiometry and tympanometry. Statistical Analysis: Multiple logistic regression analysis of significant variables derived from univariate analysis incorporating student t-test and chi-square. Results: Besides parental literacy (OR:0.3; 95% CI:0.16-0.68), non-audiologic variables showed no association with hearing loss. In contrast, most audiologic indicators, enlarged nasal turbinate (OR:3.3; 95% CI:0.98-11.31), debris or foreign bodies in the ear canal (OR:5.4; 95% CI:1.0-36.03), impacted cerumen (OR:6.2; 95% CI:2.12-14.33), dull tympanic membrane (OR:2.2; 95% CI:1.10-4.46), perforated ear drum (OR:24.3; 95% CI:2.93-1100.17) and otitis media with effusion OME (OR:14.2; 95% CI:6.22-33.09), were associated with hearing loss. However, only parental literacy (OR:0.3; 95% CI:0.16-0.69), impacted cerumen (OR:4.0; 95% CI:1.66-9.43) and OME (OR:11.0; 95% CI:4.74-25.62) emerged as predictors. Conclusion: Selective screening based on the identification of impacted cerumen and OME will facilitate the detection of a significant proportion of hearing impaired school entrants.
  18,126 270 7
Why residents should teach: A literature review
JO Busari, Albert JJA Scherpbier
July-September 2004, 50(3):205-210
Resident doctors contribute significantly to the quality of undergraduate medical training and it is assumed that by participating in the process, they also improve their own professional competency. We decided to investigate whether there is evidence to support this assumption. Our hypothesis, the physician-as-teacher rule, stated that “A skilled teacher has an increased likelihood of becoming a competent clinician, than a skilled clinician has of becoming a competent teacher” . We conducted a literature review to search for evidence to confirm or refute this assumption. Twenty-four articles written after 1990 were identified as relevant from 132 references we generated by searching Medline. The identified articles were qualitatively reviewed to identify key research conclusions and/or main discussion points. The findings from the review were collated and discussed. None of the studies showed specific evidence of how teaching results in improved professional competence. However, there was evidence that teaching ability correlated positively with the perception of clinical competency. There was also need for improved supervision and training programmes for residents in teaching skills. The review provided evidence that teaching influenced the perceived professional competency of physicians positively. Physicians who were perceived as competent were those who taught effectively, and who had a basic understanding of teaching and learning. The review shows that training in teaching is essential for physicians, and that further research is still needed to demonstrate the effect of good teaching on professional competency.
  16,932 458 19
Massive Rhabdomyolysis with Simvastatin precipitated by Amoxicillin
Vishal Bhatia
July-September 2004, 50(3):234-235
  15,195 226 6
Sir Charles Sherrington (1857 - 1952)
Rashmi A Kusurkar
July-September 2004, 50(3):238-239
  13,232 157 -
Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion followed by contralateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
P Khosla, Atul Gogia, PK Agarwal, KP Jain
July-September 2004, 50(3):219-221
  12,984 167 5
Axillary Cystic Hygroma
Prakash Manikoth, GP Mangalore, V Megha
July-September 2004, 50(3):215-216
  12,479 241 1
Remission of HIV-associated myelopathy after highly active antiretroviral therapy
FJ Fernandez-Fernandez, de la Fuente-Aguado J, A Ocampo-Hermida, A Iglesias-Castanon
July-September 2004, 50(3):195-196
HIV-associated myelopathy is the leading cause of spinal cord disease in HIV-infected patients. Typically, it affects individuals with low CD4 T cell counts, presenting with slowly progressive spastic paraparesis associated with dorsal column sensory loss as well as urinary disturbances. Other aetiologies must be first ruled out before establishing the diagnosis. We report here the case of a 37-year-old woman with advanced HIV disease, who developed HIV-associated myelopathy. The patient showed a gradual improvement after beginning with highly active antiretroviral therapy and, finally, she achieved a complete functional recovery. In addition, neuroimaging and neurophysiological tests normalized.
  11,128 181 3
Clinical and familial correlates of tardive dyskinesia in India and Israel
T Bhatia, MR Sabeeha, V Shriharsh, K Garg, RH Segman, HL Uriel, R Strous, VL Nimgaonkar, L Bernard, Smita N Deshpande
July-September 2004, 50(3):167-172
Background: Antipsychotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of psychosis, especially schizophrenia. Their long-term use can result at times in serious side-effects such as Tardive Dyskinesia (TD). Since over 80% of schizophrenia sufferers (lifetime prevalence 1%) receive long-term antipsychotic drug treatment, the extent of the problem is potentially large. Increasing age is the most consistently demonstrated risk factor for TD. Aims: To assess effect of different clinical factors and demographic variables in India and Israel and sib pair concordance of Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) in India. Settings and Design: The study was conducted simultaneously among Indian and Israeli subjects: ascertainment was family-based in India and hospital-based in Israel. Methods and Material: In India the instruments used were: Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), and Simpson Angus Scale (SAS). The last three instruments were also used in Israel. Statistical Analysis: Regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation. Results and Conclusions: TD symptoms were present in 40.4% of 151 Israeli subjects and 28.7% of 334 Indian subjects. While age at onset and total scores on PANSS were significant predictors of TD in both the samples, lower scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), diagnostic sub-group and male gender were significant predictors among Indians. There was no concordance of TD symptoms among 33 affected sib-pairs from India.
  10,450 163 5
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura -induced posterior leukoencephalopathy in a patient without significant renal or hypertensive complications
JS Hawley, John P Ney, M Swanberg
July-September 2004, 50(3):197-199
A 40-year-old male with recent-onset idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) developed focal transient neurological findings lasting for several hours, remitting, then recurring in a different pattern. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was consistent with a posterior leukoencephalopathy and electroencephalography demonstrated lateralized slowing during an episode. No acute ischemic changes were found on diffusion-weighted imaging. Close monitoring in an intensive care setting revealed no significant hypertensive episodes. The patient’s condition resolved with plasmapheresis and immunoglobulin therapy. The relation of TTP to reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndromes is discussed. Clinical features of this case suggest a mechanism for TTP-induced leukoencephalopathy independent of hypertension and renal failure.
  10,197 308 5
Radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the maxilla 7-year after combined chemoradiation for tonsillar lymphoma
M Mohammadianpanah, B Gramizadeh, SH Omidvari, A Mosalaei
July-September 2004, 50(3):200-201
Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare complication of radiation therapy. We report a case of radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the maxilla. An 80-year-old Persian woman developed radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the left maxilla 7 years after combined chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy for the Ann Arbor stage IE malignant lymphoma of the right tonsil. She underwent suboptimal tumour resection and died due to extensive locoregional disease 8 months later. An English language literature search of Medline using the terms chondrosarcoma, radiation-induced sarcoma and maxilla revealed only one earlier reported case. We describe the clinical and pathological features of this case and review the literature on radiation-induced sarcomas.
  10,182 169 -
Fifty years of Journal of Postgraduate Medicine: A journey in time
NJ Gogtay, L Rajgopal, Sandeep B Bavdekar, S Mehta, VS Salvi, A Goel
July-September 2004, 50(3):164-166
  10,237 114 1
Presence of suicidality as a prognostic indicator
K Malhotra, Thomas Schwartz, U Hameed
July-September 2004, 50(3):185-188
Background: Suicidal symptoms in depression are often thought to predict a higher severity of illness and a worse prognosis. Aims: To determine if suicidal ideation at the time of treatment for major depression can predict response to antidepressant medication in primary care. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of subjects receiving anti-depressant drugs in a primary care setting Methods and Material: Nine depressed patients (14%) who acknowledged suicidality on the PHQ-9 depression scale were followed up for and compared to a group of 54 (86%) depressed patients (controls) who did not have suicidal thoughts for four months. All were given treatment with antidepressants and followed with a disease management protocol where the PHQ-9 was used as a systematic outcome measure. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive measures and t-tests were utilized to show statistical significance. Results: There were no statistical differences in remission from depressive symptoms based on the PHQ-9 scale after antidepressant treatment, between patients with suicidal thoughts (56%) and those without (44%). Conclusion: The presence of suicidality as a depressive symptom did not predict poorer clinical outcome when treating depression in the primary care setting in the patients studied.
  9,203 161 3
Skin Branding
Sudhir Kumar, PR Kumar
July-September 2004, 50(3):204-204
  8,974 140 1
Emphysematous urinoma
Pankaj N Maheshwari, NN Trivedi, VB Kausik, VP Parmar
July-September 2004, 50(3):217-218
  8,807 141 3
Role of skeletal scintigraphy in soft tissue sarcoma: Improving the diagnostic yield
Sukanta Barai, GP Bandopadhayaya, S Chumber, DK Gupta, CD Patel, H Dhanpati
July-September 2004, 50(3):180-184
Background: The presence of skeletal metastases significantly influences the therapeutic strategy adopted for soft tissue sarcoma. However, literature on the prevalence of skeletal metastases in soft tissue sarcoma is limited and none of the available data is based on the Indian patient population. Aim: To determine the prevalence of skeletal metastases at presentation in patients of soft tissue sarcoma and to rationalise the use of preoperative skeletal scintigraphy in such patients. Methods and Material: Preoperative bone scans were evaluated in 122 patients with soft tissue sarcoma (median age, 34 years; range, 4-83). The scans were classified into 3 grades: Grade 1: metastases very likely; Grade 2: equivocal; Grade 3: normal or benign lesion. In all the patients studied, the ability of the patient to localize the site or sites of pain was recorded and that was correlated with the site of metastases in scintigraphy. Result: Seventeen (13.9%) patients had Grade 1 scan; 16 of them had bony pain that was not readily explainable by trauma or other local factors. Ten ( 8.1%) patients had Grade 2 scan, five of them had bony pain which was not readily explainable by trauma or other local factors. Ninety-five patients (77.8%) had Grade 3 scan. Of these, 9 had localised bone pain which could be definitely associated with trauma or joint degeneration. Conclusion: The prevalence of skeletal metastases at presentation in patients with soft tissue sarcoma is low (13.9%). The low rates of skeletal metastases in bone pain-free patients (0.9%) versus the high rate in symptomatic patients (76.1%) supports the use of bone scanning in symptomatic patients only.
  8,639 135 3
Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected individual
George M Varghese, Gajanan Pise, Sarojini Joy Michael, Mary Jacob, Renu George
July-September 2004, 50(3):235-236
  8,088 156 2
Adolescent breast lymphoma – apparently aggressive presentation with favourable outcome
N Abdullah, KA Behranwala, A Wotherspoon, Gerald PH Gui
July-September 2004, 50(3):236-237
  7,487 151 1
Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in Type II diabetics diagnosed within six months
N Kaveer, AK Das, Aparna Agrawal, Madanmohan , N Veena
July-September 2004, 50(3):233-234
  6,902 141 -
Bone scintigraphy in oncology
PL Jager
July-September 2004, 50(3):183-184
  6,758 124 2
Screening for auditory impairment in resource-poor countries
S Rai, JM Puliyel
July-September 2004, 50(3):178-179
  6,251 119 -
Does improved glycaemic control lead to a better short-term quality of life in diabetes mellitus type 2?
WK Redekop
July-September 2004, 50(3):194-194
  5,542 129 1
A Patient’s opinion is often valuable
Sudhir Kumar
July-September 2004, 50(3):216-216
  5,436 120 -
Presence of suicidal ideation as a prognostic indicator
V Sharma
July-September 2004, 50(3):187-188
  5,266 125 -
Use of antipsychotics and tardive dyskinesia
R Thara
July-September 2004, 50(3):172-172
  5,215 111 -
Nilima Kshirsagar
July-September 2004, 50(3):163-163
  4,903 106 -
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow