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   2004| June  | Volume 50 | Issue 2  
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Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases
David Heber
June 2004, 50(2):145-149
The intake of 400-600 g/d of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many common forms of cancer, and diets rich in plant foods are also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases of ageing. These foods contain phytochemicals that have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties which confer many health benefits. Many phytochemicals are colourful, and recommending a wide array of colourful fruits and vegetables is an easy way to communicate increased diversity of intake to the consumer. For example, red foods contain lycopene, the pigment in tomatoes, which is localized in the prostate gland and may be involved in maintaining prostate health, and which has also been linked with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Green foods, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale, contain glucosinolates which have also been associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Garlic and other white-green foods in the onion family contain allyl sulphides which may inhibit cancer cell growth. Other bioactive substances in green tea and soybeans have health benefits as well. Consumers are advised to ingest one serving of each of the seven colour groups daily, putting this recommendation within the United States National Cancer Institute and American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines of five to nine servings per day. Grouping plant foods by colour provides simplification, but it is also important as a method to help consumers make wise food choices and promote health.
  102,108 1,729 103
Topical immunomodulators in dermatology
Sujay Khandpur, VK Sharma, K Sumanth
June 2004, 50(2):131-139
Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.
  61,943 941 7
Insulin resistance, insulin sensitization and inflammation in polycystic ovarian syndrome
G Dhindsa, R Bhatia, M Dhindsa, Vishal Bhatia
June 2004, 50(2):140-144
It is estimated that 5-10% of women of reproductive age have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). While insulin resistance is not part of the diagnostic criteria for PCOS, its importance in the pathogenesis of PCOS cannot be denied. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance independent of total or fat-free body mass. Post-receptor defects in the action of insulin have been described in PCOS which are similar to those found in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Treatment with insulin sensitizers, metformin and thiazolidinediones, improve both metabolic and hormonal patterns and also improve ovulation in PCOS. Recent studies have shown that PCOS women have higher circulating levels of inflammatory mediators like C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor- , tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 ). It is possible that the beneficial effect of insulin sensitizers in PCOS may be partly due to a decrease in inflammation.
  48,377 659 18
Doctor patient relationship: Changing dynamics in the information age
Shashank M Akerkar, LS Bichile
June 2004, 50(2):120-122
  32,513 456 13
Sir Charles Bell: The artist who went to the roots!
Rehan A Kazi, P Rhys-Evans
June 2004, 50(2):158-159
  27,794 207 2
Abdominal mass secondary to actinomyces infection: An unusual presentation and its treatment
Y Sumer, Bilsel Yilmaz, B Emre, C Ugur
June 2004, 50(2):115-117
Abdominal actinomycosis may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess. This mass can mimic a malignant tumour. The diagnosis and management of abdominal actinomycosis will be discussed through a review of the literature and a case report from our own institution. The patient was a 17-year-old boy who presented with abdominal discomfort and a palpable right lower quadrant mass defined on CT scan. He underwent en bloc resection of the mass for a presumed diagnosis of tumour of uncertain type with intestinal involvement. The diagnosis was reversed, when histology revealed filamentous organisms consistent with actinomyces. He was treated with high dose penicillin for several weeks and was discharged from the hospital taking penicillin orally. Preoperative diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis is difficult. An accurate diagnosis is always obtained in a histological or microbiological examination, often requiring surgical resection. Recognition is important because successful treatment requires combined surgery and prolonged penicillin treatment.
  23,060 249 10
Early enteral nutrition after surgical treatment of gut perforations: A prospective randomised study
Amber Malhotra, AK Mathur, S Gupta
June 2004, 50(2):102-106
BACKGROUND: Withholding enteral feeds after an elective gastrointestinal surgery is based on the hypothesis that this period of "nil by mouth" provides rest to the gut and promotes healing. AIMS: To assess whether early postoperative naso-gastric tube feeding in the form of a balanced diet formula is safe in and beneficial to patients who have undergone surgical intervention for perforation of the gut. SETTING: A surgical unit of a Medical College Hospital. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Prospective randomised open control study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Patients undergoing surgical intervention for peritonitis following perforation of the gut were randomised to the study group receiving feedings of a balanced diet formula through a naso-gastric tube from the second postoperative day, or the control group in which patients were managed with the conventional regimen of intravenous fluid administration. The groups were compared for incidence and duration of complications, biochemical measurements and other characteristics like weight loss/gain. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Chi square test and 'T' test. RESULTS: One hundred patients were enrolled in each group. 88% subjects in the study group achieved positive nitrogen balance on the eighth postoperative day as compared to none in the conventionally managed group. The relative risks (95% confidence interval) of morbidity from wound infection, wound dehiscence, pneumonia, leakage of anastomoses and septicaemia were 0.66 (0.407-1.091), 0.44 (0.141-1.396), 0.70 (0.431-1.135), 0.54 (0.224-1.293) and 0.66 (0.374-1.503) respectively. Average loss of weight between the first and tenth day was 3.10 kg in the study group as compared to 5.10 kg in the conventionally managed group ('P' value < 0.001, 95% Confidence Interval - 2.46 - 1.54). CONCLUSION: Early enteral nutrition is safe and is associated with beneficial effects such as lower weight loss, early achievement of positive nitrogen balance as compared to the conventional regimen of feeding in operated cases of gut perforation.
  20,419 541 18
Leflunomide: A novel disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug
Vijay P Kale, LS Bichile
June 2004, 50(2):154-157
  17,570 383 13
Thymoma: A pathological study of 50 cases
Pradeep Vaideeswar, A Padmanabhan, JR Deshpande, SP Pandit
June 2004, 50(2):94-97
BACKGROUND: A combination of epithelial cells and lymphocytes results in a varied histomorphology of thymomas and consequent varied classification systems. AIM: To correlate the Marino and Muller-Hermelink (MMH) classification with the invasive behaviour of thymomas. SETTING AND DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thymomas encountered in the past 21 years were re-classified with the MMH classification and correlated with Masaoka's staging and clinical presentation. RESULTS: The thymomas formed 91% of the primary thymic epithelial tumours. Predominantly cortical thymomas (n=21) and cortical thymomas (n=22) were the common subtypes and 60% and 77% of these, respectively, were in stages II or III. Cystic change, necrosis or haemorrhage played no role in predicting invasive behaviour. Cortical epithelium correlated well with the presence of para-thymic syndromes, especially myasthenia gravis. CONCLUSION: MMH classification is easy to apply. Cortical thymomas in stage I should be followed up for possible recurrence.
  15,800 222 5
A new technique of fixation of radial head fractures using a modified tubular plate
AR Guha, ER Jago
June 2004, 50(2):113-114
Radial head fractures are fairly common, occurring in 17-44% of all elbow injuries. Mason Type 2 fractures may be fixed using mini fragment screws, this fixation often needing augmentation with a plate to make the construct rotationally stable. However, the drill holes needed to fix the plate to the radial head, carry the risk of inflicting more injury to the fractured fragments. In our case, the radial head fracture was fixed with a modified one-third tubular plate. The plate was cut through the distal hole and the two cut ends were bent into hooks. These two hooks were engaged into two breaches made on the margin of the radial head and this provided rotational stability to the head without causing further damage. The fracture healed well and the patient regained full movement in the elbow. We conclude that this method may be used to fix fractures of the radial head, which require additional support with a plate.
  13,893 190 -
Cerebral infarction in a 17-year-old boy
Samir Kubba, MK Rohit, R Vijayvergiya, T Singh
June 2004, 50(2):123-124
  12,815 187 1
Cerebellar medulloblastoma presenting with skeletal metastasis
Sukanta Barai, GP Bandopadhayaya, PK Julka, H Dhanapathi, AK Haloi, A Seith
June 2004, 50(2):110-112
Medulloblastomas are highly malignant brain tumours, but only rarely produce skeletal metastases. No case of medulloblastoma has been documented to have produced skeletal metastases prior to craniotomy or shunt surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with pain in the hip and lower back with difficulty in walking of 3 months' duration. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were present hence a diagnosis of cerebellar neoplasm or skeletal tuberculosis with cerebellar abscess formation was considered. MRI of brain revealed a lesion in the cerebellum suggestive of medulloblastoma. Bone scan revealed multiple sites of skeletal metastases excluding the lumbar vertebrae. MRI of lumbar spine and hip revealed metastases to all lumbar vertebrae and both hips. Computed tomography-guided biopsy was obtained from the L3 vertebra, which revealed metastatic deposits from medulloblastoma. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology showed the presence of medulloblastoma cells. A final diagnosis of cerebellar medulloblastoma with skeletal metastases was made. He underwent craniotomy and histopathology confirmed medulloblastoma.
  11,634 213 5
Imaging using Tc99m-tetrofosmin for the detection of the recurrence of brain tumour: A comparative study with Tc99m-glucoheptonate
Sukanta Barai, GP Bandopadhayaya, PK Julka, A Malhotra, CS Bal, H Dhanpathi
June 2004, 50(2):89-93
BACKGROUND: In the past "blood-brain barrier" agents such as Tc99m-glucoheptonate were routinely used for the diagnosis of brain tumours. Of late, agents used for studying myocardial perfusion namely, Tc99m-tetrofosmin, Thallium-201, and Tc99m-sestamibi have replaced the "blood-brain barrier agents" when imaging is undertaken for the detection of the recurrence of brain tumours. However, the incremental diagnostic information provided by Tc99m-tetrofosmin when compared with a blood brain barrier agent in the diagnosis of recurrent brain tumour has not been evaluated till date. AIMS: The study was carried out to substantiate whether Tc99m-tetrofosmin provides any incremental diagnostic information not provided by the blood brain barrier agent Tc99m-glucoheptonate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Brain SPECT scans were performed using Tc99m-tetrofosmin and Tc99m-glucoheptonate in 126 patients of recurrent brain tumour. Bio-distribution and uptake properties of both the tracers were analysed by measuring relative uptake of both the tracers in tumour compared to background (T/B ratio), nasopharynx (T/N ratio) and scalp (T/S ratio). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to see agreement of the continuous variables. Paired t test was used to evaluate the difference between two means. RESULTS: Uptake properties of both the tracers were analysed in 105 patients in whom both Tc99m-tetrofosmin and Tc99m-glucoheptonate showed concentration. The remaining 21 patients in whom the tumour mass did not show Tc99m-tetrofosmin concentration were excluded from the study. Mean T/B ratio, T/N ratio and T/S ratio was 5.83 + 2.09 and 5.99 + 2.26, 0.53 + 0.21 and 0.55 + 0.22 and 1.11 + 0.60 and 1.26 + 0.52 for Tc99m-tetrofosmin and Tc99m-glucoheptonate respectively. No statistically significant difference between T/B ratio and T/N ratio of Tc99m-tetrofosmin and Tc99m-glucoheptonate was found; p values were 0.25 and 0.83 respectively. However there was significant difference (P=0.006) between the T/S ratio of Tc99m-tetrofosmin and that of Tc99m-glucoheptonate. CONCLUSION: Tc99m-tetrofosmin does not provide any incremental diagnostic information not provided by the blood brain barrier agent Tc99m-glucoheptonate.
  11,409 156 3
Falciparum malaria induced retrobulbar neuritis
Vijay P Kale, LS Bichile, S Bajpai
June 2004, 50(2):150-150
  10,992 240 -
Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis
KC Nischal, D Sachdev, V Kharkar, S Mahajan
June 2004, 50(2):125-126
  9,549 179 4
Concurrent intra-medullary and intra-cranial tuberculomas
Mihir M Thacker, AI Puri
June 2004, 50(2):107-109
Although tuberculosis of the central nervous system is well known, the incidence of intra-medullary tuberculomas is low and a combination of intra-medullary with intra-cranial tuberculomas is extremely rare. This communication reports a case of disseminated (intra-medullary, intra-cerebellar and intra-cerebral) tuberculomas in a six-year-old girl initially presenting with a spinal tumour syndrome. Conservative treatment with anti-tuberculous medications and a short course of injectable steroids resulted in complete resolution of her symptoms.
  9,523 204 12
Development of hydrocephalus in a patient with Joubert syndrome
Ferah Genel, F Atlihan, D Ozdemir, S Targan
June 2004, 50(2):153-153
  9,392 197 4
Lenticulostriate vasculopathy on transcranial sonography
Ashwin Asrani, A Karnik, K Pimpale
June 2004, 50(2):129-130
  8,813 165 -
Caspase 1 and caspase 8 in HIV infected patients with and without tuberculosis
A Wanchu, A Bhatnagar, B Kumar, P Bambery, S Singh
June 2004, 50(2):98-101
BACKGROUND: Caspase 8 is involved in apoptosis mediated by Fas and p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor ligation in HIV infection. Apoptosis is partially mediated by interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (caspase-1). AIMS: We determined apoptosis, using caspase-1 and caspase-8, among patients with HIV infection, with and without tuberculosis (TB), those with TB alone and healthy individuals. SETTING AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of caspase-1 and caspase-8 among patients with HIV infection, with and without TB, those with TB alone and healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen HIV infected patients with TB (HIV+/TB+) and 20 with HIV infection without TB (HIV+/TB-) were studied. Fifteen individuals with TB alone were disease controls (HIV-/TB+) and 20 were healthy controls (HIV-/TB-). Caspases were measured by single-step ELISA using commercially available monoclonal antibodies. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Two-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Mean CD4 counts of HIV+/TB+ were lower than HIV+/TB- (p<0.05). OD value of caspase 1 in HIV+/TB+ was 0.295+0.05, while that in HIV+/TB- it was 0.302+0.18. It was 0.293+0.07 in HIV-/TB+ and in HIV-/TB- the values were 0.287+0.06. OD value of caspase 8 in HIV+/TB+ was 0.307+ 0.07, lower than HIV+/TB- (0.927+0.25). It was 0.008+0.03 in HIV-/TB+ and in HIV-/TB-, 0.074+0.004. Values of caspase 8 in patients with HIV infection (with/without TB) were higher than those with TB alone or healthy individuals (p<0.01). Levels of caspase 8 in HIV+/TB- were higher than patients with HIV+/TB+ (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Levels of caspase-1 are not different irrespective of presence or otherwise of TB and HIV infection. Fas-related apoptosis is higher in HIV infection. With concomitant TB, levels of caspase 8 were lower as compared with those without TB.
  8,707 191 -
Evidence made medicine
Malvinder S Parmar
June 2004, 50(2):118-119
  8,500 226 1
Medical research in 21st Century - What is needed
Nilima A Kshirsagar
June 2004, 50(2):87-88
  8,315 171 -
Central nervous embolism as an unusual presentation of left atrial myxoma
K KN Namboodiri, MS Chaliha, RK Manoj, A Grover
June 2004, 50(2):151-151
  8,282 142 2
Introducing oncology registrars to palliative care
Reena George, J Subhashini, B Selvamani
June 2004, 50(2):152-152
  7,883 124 -
Intraosseus schwannoma
J Isaac, NK Shyamkumar, SV Karnik
June 2004, 50(2):127-128
  6,981 158 -
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow