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  Most popular articles (Since February 12, 2004)

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Microteaching as a vehicle of teacher training--its advantages and disadvantages.
N Ananthakrishnan
July-September 1993, 39(3):142-3
  291,640 540 -
Clinical signs in medicine: pulsus paradoxus.
A Khasnis, Y Lokhandwala
January-March 2002, 48(1):46-9
  239,778 1,655 8
Multiple ring-enhancing lesions of the brain
RK Garg, MK Sinha
October-December 2010, 56(4):307-316
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.70939  PMID:20935408
Multiple ring-enhancing lesions of the brain are one of the most commonly encountered abnormalities on neuroimaging. These can be caused by a variety of infectious, neoplastic, inflammatory or vascular diseases. Distinguishing non-neoplastic causes from neoplastic lesions is extremely important because a misdiagnosis can lead to unwarranted neurosurgery and exposure to toxic chemotherapy or potentially harmful brain irradiation. Diligent clinical evaluation and a battery of tests are required for making a definitive diagnosis. Newer advanced diagnostic techniques, such as diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perfusion-weighted MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography may help in establishing the etiology. However, early brain biopsy is often needed because several of these diseases are potentially life-threatening.
  225,819 244 34
Romberg's test.
A Khasnis, RM Gokula
April-June 2003, 49(2):169-72
  149,209 1,339 13
Comparative study of hemoglobin estimated by Drabkin's and Sahli's methods.
P Balasubramaniam, A Malathi
January-March 1992, 38(1):8-9
Hemoglobin was estimated by Sahli's and Drabkin's method in samples collected by finger prick and venepuncture. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the hemoglobin values obtained by the two methods (P less than .01 & P less than .05 respectively). Sahli's method carried out by two different groups of workers in samples of blood collected by venepuncture showed statistically significant difference (P less than .001). This could be due to the inbuilt errors of Sahli's method including a subjective bias due to visual comparison. When same samples were subjected to Drabkin's method by the same group of workers no significant difference in the results were obtained (P less than .05). This is due to reliability of the Drabkins method. The aim of this comparative study of hemoglobin estimation by Sahli's and Drabkin's methods is to emphasize the sensitivity and reliability of Drabkin's over Sahli's and utility of Drabkin's method in undergraduate teaching schedule.
  139,733 567 3
History and development of forensic science in India.
RK Tewari, KV Ravikumar
October-December 2000, 46(4):303-8
  131,959 343 -
The Nine Flavours of Open Access Scholarly Publishing
J Willinsky
July-September 2003, 49(3):263-267
  125,630 861 21
Life-threatening overdose with lamotrigine, citalopram, and chlorpheniramine
N Venkatraman, D O'Neil, AP Hall
October-December 2008, 54(4):316-317
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.43516  PMID:18953153
Lamotrigine is a commonly used agent for seizure control in epilepsy. There are limited data on the adverse effects of lamotrigine in overdose. We report a number of serious side-effects associated with a large overdose of lamotrigine. A 23-year-old female presented to the emergency department after taking an intentional overdose of 9.2 g of lamotrigine, 56 mg of chlorpheniramine, and 220 mg of citalopram. On admission, she had a reduced level of consciousness and electrocardiographic abnormalities; a widened QRS and a prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval. Prompt treatment with early intubation, along with the use of magnesium for cardioprotection and administration of sodium bicarbonate may have aided in a quick recovery with a short intensive care stay and good outcome.
  106,940 341 14
Cancer Risk and Diet in India
R Sinha, DE Anderson, SS McDonald, P Greenwald
July-September 2003, 49(3):222-228
India is a developing country with one of the most diverse populations and diets in the world. Cancer rates in India are lower than those seen in Western countries, but are rising with increasing migration of rural population to the cities, increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyles. In India, rates for oral and oesophageal cancers are some of the highest in the world. In contrast, the rates for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers are one of the lowest. Studies of Indian immigrants in Western societies indicate that rates of cancer and other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, increase dramatically after a generation in the adopted country. Change of diet is among the factors that may be responsible for the changing disease rates. Diet in India encompasses diversity unknown to most other countries, with many dietary patterns emanating from cultural and religious teachings that have existed for thousands of years. Very little is known, however, about the role of the Indian diet in causation of cancer or its role, if any, in prevention of cancer, although more attention is being focused on certain aspects of the Indian diet, such as vegetarianism, spices, and food additives. Of particular interest for cancer prevention is the role of turmeric (curcumin), an ingredient in common Indian curry spice. Researchers also have investigated cumin, chilies, kalakhar, Amrita Bindu, and various plant seeds for their apparent cancer preventive properties. Few prospective studies, however, have been conducted to investigate the role of Indian diet and its various components in prevention of cancer. From a public health perspective, there is an increasing need to develop cancer prevention programs responsive to the unique diets and cultural practices of the people of India.
  104,659 1,726 127
Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases
David Heber
June 2004, 50(2):145-149
The intake of 400-600 g/d of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many common forms of cancer, and diets rich in plant foods are also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases of ageing. These foods contain phytochemicals that have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties which confer many health benefits. Many phytochemicals are colourful, and recommending a wide array of colourful fruits and vegetables is an easy way to communicate increased diversity of intake to the consumer. For example, red foods contain lycopene, the pigment in tomatoes, which is localized in the prostate gland and may be involved in maintaining prostate health, and which has also been linked with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Green foods, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale, contain glucosinolates which have also been associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Garlic and other white-green foods in the onion family contain allyl sulphides which may inhibit cancer cell growth. Other bioactive substances in green tea and soybeans have health benefits as well. Consumers are advised to ingest one serving of each of the seven colour groups daily, putting this recommendation within the United States National Cancer Institute and American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines of five to nine servings per day. Grouping plant foods by colour provides simplification, but it is also important as a method to help consumers make wise food choices and promote health.
  101,019 1,729 103
Brain natriuretic peptide in diagnosis and treatment of heart failure.
V Bhatia, P Nayyar, S Dhindsa
April-June 2003, 49(2):182-5
Currently we are in the midst of a chronic disease epidemic of congestive heart failure (CHF) worldwide. This epidemic is marked by a rapid rise in prevalent cases over the past decade that is due in part to the aging population and improved survival in patients with other cardiovascular conditions. At present there are 5 million Americans with congestive heart failure, with nearly 500000 new cases every year. To provide cost-effective treatment for patients with congestive heart failure, rapid and accurate differentiation of congestive heart failure from other causes of dyspnea must be accomplished. Although echocardiography is considered the gold standard for the detection of left ventricular dysfunction, it is expensive, is not always easily accessible, and may not always reflect an acute condition. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac neurohormone specifically secreted from the cardiac ventricles as a response to ventricular volume expansion, pressure overload, and resultant increased wall tension. BNP can be used in the diagnosis of CHF. However, the present American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association practice guidelines (2001) for the evaluation and management of CHF state that the role of blood BNP in the identification of patients with CHF remains to be fully clarified. We have discussed the role of BNP in the diagnosis and management of CHF.
  98,927 1,290 13
Effect of food on doxycycline absorption.
NA Kshirsagar, PS Ankalesaria
July-September 1987, 33(3):117-9
  97,721 0 2
Understanding your student: Using the VARK model
IJ Prithishkumar, SA Michael
April-June 2014, 60(2):183-186
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.132337  PMID:24823519
Background: Students have different preferences in the assimilation and processing of information. The VARK learning style model introduced by Fleming includes a questionnaire that identifies a person's sensory modality preference in learning. This model classifies students into four different learning modes; visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K). Materials and Methods: The 16-point multiple choice VARK questionnaire version 7.1 was distributed to first year undergraduate medical students after obtaining permission for use.Results: Seventy-nine students (86.8%) were multimodal in their learning preference, and 12 students (13.8%) were unimodal. The highest unimodal preference was K-7.7%. Surprisingly, there were no visual unimodal learners. The commonest learning preference was the bimodal category, of which the highest percentage was seen in the AK (33%) and AR (16.5%) category. The most common trimodal preference was ARK (8.9%). The total individual scores in each category were V-371, A-588, R/W-432, and K-581; auditory and kinesthetic being the highest preference. Visual mode had the lowest overall score. There was no significant difference in preference between the sexes. Conclusion: Students possess a wide diversity in learning preferences. This necessitates teachers to effectively deliver according to the needs of the student. Multiple modalities of information presentation are necessary to keep the attention and motivation of our students requiring a shift from the traditional large-group teacher-centric lecture method to an interactive, student-centric multimodal approach.
  96,449 64 29
History of plastic surgery in India.
RE Rana, BS Arora
January-March 2002, 48(1):76-8
  92,343 506 4
Umbilical hernia in adults: day case local anaesthetic repair.
VS Menon, TH Brown
April-June 2003, 49(2):132-3
INTRODUCTION: The waiting times for elective surgery of Umbilical hernia (UH) in adults are unacceptably long in some cases. During this period, irreducibility and strangulation are possible. We operate on adult patients under local anaesthesia (LA) as day cases to avoid this delay and describe our experience in this paper. AIMS: The aims of our study were to look at the age and sex distribution, body weight, type and amount of local anaesthetic used, morbidity, admission and readmission rates, and waiting times of adult patients operated on for UH under LA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a retrospective study covering a 4 year period from July 1996 to June 2000 including all adult patients undergoing the above procedure under the care of a single consultant general surgeon. A standard Mayo repair using non absorbable material was used without a mesh or a drain. RESULTS: 32 patients with UH were operated on under LA, 23 males and 9 females with a median age of 51 years (range 20 to 86 years). The body weight ranged from 63 to 120 (median 87) kg. The average duration of the procedure was 30 (range 22-40) minutes. Sedation was needed in 4 patients. Two patients developed wound infections, one superficial and one deep. There was no mortality. The median period of follow-up was 24 (range 4-48) months and there was no recurrence. The median waiting time for the operation was 6 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Day case local anaesthetic repair of UH in adults seems to be safe and feasible with an acceptable morbidity. Suture repair in the right patient has excellent results and the waiting times are acceptable.
  89,907 442 9
Watson's water hammer pulse
JC Suvarna
April-June 2008, 54(2):163-165
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.40791  PMID:18480541
  89,402 504 4
Spider nevus.
A Khasnis, RM Gokula
October-December 2002, 48(4):307-9
  80,193 619 3
A study of stress in medical students at Seth G.S. Medical College.
AN Supe
January-March 1998, 44(1):1-6
BACKGROUND: It is usually observed that medical students undergo tremendous stress during various stages of the MBBS course. There is a high rate of suicide among them. METHODS: To determine incidence of stress and factors controlling stress in medical students at various stages of MBBS course at Seth G S Medical college, 238 students (First year 98, Second 76, Third 64) were asked to complete a questionnaire on personal data (gender, stay at hostel, mode of travel, time spent in travel every day, medium of study in school, place of school education.), Stress inducing factors, Zung's depression scale, ways of coping, stress relievers, perceived social support and personality type. Statistical tests used were ANOVA, critical ratio and Student's 't' test. RESULTS: Majority of medical students (175/238--73%) perceived stress. Stress was found to be significantly more in Second and Third MBBS students rather than First MBBS levels (p < 0.05). Stress was not found to differ significantly on the basis of sex, stay at hostel, model of travel, time spent in travel every day, medium of study in school, place of school education. Stress was found to be significantly more in students having more than 95% of marks at 12th Standard as compared to others. Academic factors were greater perceived cause of stress in medical students. There was no significant difference in the students at different levels of MBBS regarding academic factors and social factors as a stress inducing factors. Physical factors were found to be significantly more in Second and Third MBBS students as compared to First MBBS students. Emotional factors were found to be significantly more in First MBBS students as compared to Second & Third MBBS students. Stress was more common in medical students who have dominant strategy of coping as positive reappraisal, accepting responsibility and planful problem solving. Stress was less common in medical students at Seth G S Medical College who have dominant strategy of coping as escaping and distancing from difficult situation. Family and Friend as perceived social supports were more in Second MBBS than First MBBS medical students. Stress was not found to be significantly more in students having their personality factor contributing to stress (Type A--52/67) as compared to others (Type B--123/171). This indicates that the stress was not trait oriented but was process oriented (p = NS). CONCLUSION: Stress in medical students is common and is process oriented. It is more in second and third year. Academic factors are greater perceived cause of stress in medical students at Seth G S medical college. Emotional factors are found to be significantly more in First MBBS. It is dependent on person's ways of coping and social support.
  75,150 876 13
Bone graft substitutes: past, present, future.
SN Parikh
April-June 2002, 48(2):142-8
Bone grafts are necessary to provide support, fill voids, and enhance biologic repair of skeletal defects. They are used by orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, craniofacial surgeons, and periodontists. Bone harvested from donor sites is the gold standard for this procedure. It is well documented that there are limitations and complications from the use of autograft, including the limited quantity and associated chronic donor site pain. Despite the increase in the number of procedures that require bone grafts, there has not been a single ideal bone graft substitute Scientists, surgeons, and medical companies, thus, have a tremendous responsibility to develop biologic alternatives that will enhance the functional capabilities of the bone graft substitute, and potentially reduce or eliminate the need for autograft. This article is an attempt to review the past and existing bone graft substitutes, and future directions of research. The historical data was extracted after thorough review of the literature. The data for the current concepts and future directions was compiled from the Internet, and from direct correspondence with medical companies. Since many products are undergoing clinical trials, and are yet not commercially available, their data cannot be found in literature. The main purpose of this article is to give the reader an idea about the existing market products and products likely to be available in near future.
  73,169 2,004 53
History of psychiatry in India.
SR Parkar, VS Dawani, JS Apte
January-March 2001, 47(1):73-6
  71,903 483 -
Oral cancer among patients under the age of 35 years.
EM Iype, M Pandey, A Mathew, G Thomas, P Sebastian, MK Nair
July-September 2001, 47(3):171-6
BACKGROUND: Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the commonest cancers among males. AIMS: To assess the aetiological factors, patient characteristics, treatment and the outcome in young patients with oral cancer. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study of patients under the age of 35 years with cancer of the oral cavity treated between 1982-1996, with the last follow-up till 2001, using the tumour registry data of Regional Cancer Centre (RCC), Trivandrum, Kerala, India. SUBJECT AND METHOD: The detailed clinical, treatment and follow-up data were obtained from the computerised records of RCC and recorded on a preset proforma. This was analysed with emphasis on age, sex, risk factors, site, histology, clinical extent and treatment methods and survival in the study group. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The survival analysis was carried by Kaplan-Meier method and the difference in survival was analysed using log-rank test. RESULTS: Out of 264 patients analysed, tongue was the commonest site identified in 136 (52%) patients followed by buccal mucosa in 69 (26%) patients. A male female ratio of 2.3:1 was observed with a significantly higher male preponderance in buccal mucosa (4.3:1). Prior exposure to tobacco or alcohol was noted in 59.4% patients, with more habitués in buccal mucosa cancer. Histological confirmation was present only in 83.7% patients and among them most were squamous cell carcinoma (85.9%). Radiotherapy, surgery or combined modalities of treatment were employed for majority of patients. The 5-year survival was 57.3%. T stage of the tumour was found to be significant in predicting disease free survival (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The importance of early detection for clinical down staging is stressed. There is a need to investigate the aetiology of intra oral cancers in younger patients since a significant proportion (almost 40%) of these patients do not have associated risk factors for cancer.
  70,695 446 23
Objective structured clinical/practical examination (OSCE/OSPE).
N Ananthakrishnan
April-June 1993, 39(2):82-4
  70,171 0 -
Review of periodic limb movement and restless leg syndrome
R Natarajan
April-June 2010, 56(2):157-162
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.65284  PMID:20622400
Periodic limb movement (PLM) and Restless leg syndrome (RLS) are types of sleep disorders that are not very well recognized in clinical practice. While RLS is a clinical diagnosis, the diagnosis of PLM is made by polysomnography. They share the same pathophysiology and often respond to the same treatment. To date all the epidemiological studies have reported the prevalence between 2% and 15%. It has recently become known that mild obstructive sleep apnea and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) can masquerade as PLM syndrome. New discoveries have been made with regard to genetics and PLM and RLS. Detailed review on this subject should improve the awareness of these disorders, both among general physicians and specialists. Extensive review of journals in the past 20 years was made using Medline search.
  68,908 512 41
Fournier's gangrene: Evaluation of 68 patients and analysis of prognostic variables
HR Unalp, E Kamer, H Derici, K Atahan, U Balci, C Demirdoven, O Nazli, MA Onal
April-June 2008, 54(2):102-105
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.40775  PMID:18480525
Context: Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rapidly progressing acute gangrenous infection of the anorectal and urogenital area. Aims: The objectives of this study were to investigate patients with FG and to determine risk factors that affect mortality. Settings and Design: Retrospective clinical study. Materials and Methods: Clinical presentations and outcomes of surgical treatments were evaluated in 68 patients with FG. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square, Student's t -test, and logistic regression test. Results: Mean age of patients was 54 and female-to-male ratio was 9:59. Among the predisposing factors, diabetes mellitus (DM) was the most common ( n =24, 35.3%), and sepsis on admission was detected in 31 (45.6%) and 15 (22.1%) patients, respectively. Seven (10.3%) patients died. Using logistic regression test, Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) >9, DM and sepsis on admission were found as prognostic factors. Conclusions: FG has a high mortality rate, especially in patients with DM and sepsis. An FGSI value >9 indicates high mortality rate.
  68,964 378 44
Amlodipine-induced petechial rash
MB Murthy, B Murthy
October-December 2011, 57(4):341-342
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90091  PMID:22120868
A patient of essential hypertension stabilized on 10 mg amlodipine once daily developed brownish black petechial non-blanching macular rash bilaterally covering the limbs below the knee and dorsum of the feet. History, general and clinical examinations and lab investigations revealed no abnormalities. Temporal association of the onset of rash with amlodipine use, inability to explain rash by natural history of hypertension, possibility of rash with amlodipine and rash resolution on dechallenge placed this reaction in Naranjo score of 6, a probable adverse reaction to amlodipine. Hence the drug was replaced by enalapril. The rash resolved completely over a period of eight weeks.
  68,188 30 4
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow