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Study of placental histopathology in COVID-19 mothers at a dedicated COVID-19 hospital in India

1 Department of Pathology, TN Medical College, BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, TN Medical College, BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
N Mahajan,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, TN Medical College, BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_60_23

PMID: 37675665

Introduction: Maternal infections can affect the placenta, which acts as a fetomaternal barrier. This study aimed to determine the spectrum of morphologic alterations in the placentas of pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact on fetal or neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case-control study. One hundred SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women and an equal number of SARS CoV-2 negative pregnant women in their third trimester who delivered at our tertiary care center between December 2020 and November 2021 were enrolled in the study. This study was conducted at the end of the first wave and during the second COVID-19 wave. Histopathological examination of the placentas was done using Amsterdam consensus criteria. We observed for evidence of maternal vascular malperfusion [MVM], fetal vascular malperfusion, and inflammation in the placenta. Results: The clinical findings were compared between the cases and controls. Evidence of MVM was seen in comparable numbers between the cases and controls, but as it involved less than 30% of the placental disc, it was considered an insignificant finding. Deciduitis was seen in equal proportions in both groups. The comparison between the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups failed to show any difference in placental pathology between both groups. There was no adverse fetal outcome seen in the pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: Placental injury at the microscopic level was observed but was neither significant nor specific to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS CoV-2 infection did not influence the placental pathology. Also, no adverse neonatal outcomes were observed.

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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow