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    -  Jain S
    -  Mahajan A
    -  Patil P M
    -  Bhandarkar P
    -  Khajanchi M
    -  IndSurg Collaboration
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Trends of surgical-care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi-centre study in India (IndSurg Collaboration)

1 Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India
3 Department of Biostatistics, BARC Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
4 Department of Surgery, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission14-Jun-2022
Date of Decision18-Oct-2022
Date of Acceptance24-Nov-2022
Date of Web Publication11-Jul-2023

Correspondence Address:
M Khajanchi,
Department of Surgery, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_485_22

PMID: 37449588

 :: Abstract 

Context: The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns adversely affected global healthcare services to varying extents. To accommodate its added burden, emergency services were affected along-with elective surgeries.
Aims: To quantify and analyze the trends of essential surgeries and bellwether procedures during the waxing and waning of the pandemic, across various hospitals in India.
Settings and Design: Multi-centric retrospective study.
Methods and Material: A research consortium led by World Health Organization (WHO) Collaboration Center (WHOCC) for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in Low-and Middle-Income countries, India, conducted this study with 5 centers. All surgeries performed during April 2020 (Wave I), November 2020 (Recovery I), and April 2021 (Wave II) were compared with those performed in April 2019 (pre-pandemic period).
Statistical Analysis Used: Microsoft Excel 2019 and SPSS Version 20
Results: The total number of surgeries reduced by 77% during Wave I, which improved to a 52% reduction in Recovery I compared to the pre-pandemic period. However, surgeries were reduced again during Wave II to 68%, but the reduction was less compared to Wave I. Emergency and essential surgeries were affected along with the elective ones but to a lesser extent.
Conclusions: The present study has quantified the effects of the pandemic on surgical-care delivery across a timeline and documented a reduction in overall surgical volumes during the peaks of the pandemic (Wave I and II) with minimal improvement as the surge of COVID-19 cases declined (Recovery II). The surgical volumes improved during the second wave compared to the first one which may be attributable to better preparedness. Cesarean sections were affected the least.

Keywords: Cancellation of surgeries, emergency surgeries, essential surgeries, India, global lockdown, low- and middle-income country

How to cite this URL:
Jain S, Mahajan A, Patil P M, Bhandarkar P, Khajanchi M, IndSurg Collaboration. Trends of surgical-care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi-centre study in India (IndSurg Collaboration). J Postgrad Med [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2023 Sep 26]. Available from:



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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
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