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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 69  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 27-34

Economic burden of limited English proficiency: A prevalence-based cost of illness study of its direct, indirect, and intangible costs

1 Department of Pediatrics, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. S Karande
Department of Pediatrics, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpgm.jpgm_445_22

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Aims: The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the economic burden of limited English proficiency (LEP) by estimating its direct, indirect, and intangible costs. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of variables on the economic burden. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional single-arm descriptive study conducted in a learning disability clinic in a public medical college in Mumbai. Subjects and Methods: The study cases (aged ≥8 years and ≤18 years) were recruited by non-probability sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the parent to collect data related to direct and indirect costs. Intangible cost data were collected by documenting the willingness-to-pay value using the contingent valuation technique. Statistical Analysis Used: A multivariate regression model was used to assess the impact of predictor variables on the costs. Results: The direct, indirect, and intangible costs due to LEP were Indian Rupees (INR) 826,736, 3,828,220, and 1,906,300, respectively. Indirect costs comprised 82.2% of the total costs. Expenditure on tuition and remedial education comprised 39.86% and 14.08% of the indirect and direct costs, respectively. The average annual learning disability clinic costs were INR 2,169,146. The average annual total costs per student were INR 42,102. Higher socioeconomic status was predictive of increased “indirect costs”, “total costs”, and “intangible costs.” Conclusion: LEP is a cost-intensive condition (indirect > intangible > direct costs). Non-medical costs are the costliest component of direct costs. Parental loss of earnings is the costliest component of indirect costs.


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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow