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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 133-140

Respectful maternity care during childbirth in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Symbiosis Institute of Health Sciences, Symbiosis International (Deemed) University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
R Yeravdekar
Symbiosis Institute of Health Sciences, Symbiosis International (Deemed) University, Pune, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_648_19

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Background: Respectful maternity care is a rightful expectation of women. However, disrespectful maternity care is prevalent in various settings. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to identify various forms of ill-treatment, determinants, and pooled prevalence of disrespectful maternity care in India. Methods: A systematic review was performed in various databases. After quality assessment, seven studies were included. Pooled prevalence was estimated using the inverse variance method and the random-effects model using Review Manager Software. Results: Individual study prevalence ranged from 20.9% to 100%. The overall pooled prevalence of disrespectful maternity care was 71.31% (95% CI 39.84–102.78). Pooled prevalence in community-based studies was 77.32% (95% CI 56.71–97.93), which was higher as compared to studies conducted in health facilities, this being 65.38% (95% CI 15.76–115.01). The highest reported form of ill-treatment was non-consent (49.84%), verbal abuse (25.75%) followed by threats (23.25%), physical abuse (16.96%), and discrimination (14.79%). Besides, other factors identified included lack of dignity, delivery by unqualified personnel, lack of privacy, demand for informal payments, and lack of basic infrastructure, hygiene, and sanitation. The determinants identified for disrespect and abuse were sociocultural factors including age, socioeconomic status, caste, parity, women autonomy, empowerment, comorbidities, and environmental factors including infrastructural issues, overcrowding, ill-equipped health facilities, supply constraints, and healthcare access. Conclusion: The high prevalence of disrespectful maternity care indicates an urgent need to improve maternity care in India by making it more respectful, dignified, and women-centered. Interventions, policies, and programs should be implemented that will protect the fundamental rights of women.


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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow