Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 10308  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Articlesmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Etcetera Contact
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::Related articles
 ::  Article in PDF (300 KB)
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
 :: Introduction
 ::  References

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded28    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 11    

Recommend this journal


  Table of Contents     
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 182-187

Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Islamic Azad University, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission18-Jun-2015
Date of Decision27-Jul-2015
Date of Acceptance14-Jan-2016
Date of Web Publication18-Jul-2016

Correspondence Address:
F Hashemian
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Islamic Azad University, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Tehran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0022-3859.186389

Rights and Permissions

 :: Abstract 

In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents' libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

Keywords: Parental behavior, paternal behavior, prolactin

How to cite this article:
Hashemian F, Shafigh F, Roohi E. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review. J Postgrad Med 2016;62:182-7

How to cite this URL:
Hashemian F, Shafigh F, Roohi E. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2023 Sep 24];62:182-7. Available from:

 :: Introduction Top

Currently, available data seem to be consistent with a working hypothesis that the expression of parental behavior involves neuroendocrine circuits in both male and female parents. Indeed, several studies indicated that the role of hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, oxytocin, vasopressin, and prolactin might be of great significance in organizing the neuronal machinery during early development, which sets the parameters for the amount of parental behavior observed. [1] Yet, little research has been done on the hormonal bases of paternal behavior and changes in reproductive endocrinology after childbirth in humans. Thus, understanding the neuroendocrinology of paternal behavior is an emerging research opportunity in behavioral neuroscience, [2],[3] which potentially could pave the way for translation of basic science findings into clinical settings.

Schradin and Anzenberger emphasized the role of prolactin in the occurrence of paternal behavior and suggested that prolactin deserves the label of "hormone of paternity." Yet, given the fact that prolactin plays a significant role in the occurrence of both paternal and maternal behaviors, they concluded that it might indeed more properly be called the "hormone of parenthood." [4]

To date, few clinical studies examined the hormonal influences of paternal care after childbirth. The present review aimed to summarize the available data on hormonal influences of paternal behavior in human and nonhuman mammalian species.

Search Methods

All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included.

Parental brain

For all female mammalian species, the reproductive experience alters the neurobiological processes in order to facilitate behavioral changes associated with parenting. Considerable research has been devoted to the understanding of the neuroendocrine pathways underlying maternal care in rodents and primates. [5] However, in only 6% of the mammalian species, including humans, intense paternal care has been manifested. [6],[7],[8] According to Leuner et al., less is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying paternal behavior; however, the available evidence suggests that similar neuromodulators and hormones are responsible for parenting behavior in both men and women. [5] Similar brain regions, including prefrontal cortex, olfactory bulb, medial preoptic area, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala have been identified to be involved in the display of parental behavior. [9],[10],[11] Thus, parental brains clearly differ from those of nonparents, having been changed by the presence of the newborn and corresponding hormonal changes. [5]

Hormonal bases of maternal behavior

The influence of pregnancy and parturition hormones on maternal behavior has long been the topic of interest and research. [12] Extensive studies on rats and other mammals have demonstrated that high hormonal levels of oxytocin, prolactin, and estradiol by the end of pregnancy provide the basis for maternal behavioral changes. [13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19] A similar hormonal pattern (although the actual estrogen and progesterone profile in humans differ somewhat from that of other mammals) is found to be present in human mothers, which is responsible for parental behavior and feelings of attachment toward the newborn. [20],[21],[22] In fact, maternal behavior serves as the primary symbol for the human capacity to love and probably identifies the highest form of human intimacy. [23]

Furthermore, researchers suggest that hormonal changes after childbirth lead to decreased libido of the parents and thus, contribute to increased parental investments. [1],[3],[24],[25] In fact, decreased libidos result from elevated prolactin and decreased testosterone levels in both male and female parents. [24],[25],[26] In this way, new parents are more likely to contribute to infant care and maximize the child's benefits and survival.

To look at the issue from another perspective, one may argue that the importance of a good sexual function for individuals is indeed undeniable. [27] Although androgen levels are normally lower in females than males, researchers suggest that there is a positive correlation between decreased androgen levels and female sexual dysfunction. [28],[29] Turna et al. found significant differences in the total testosterone, free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone blood levels of women with low libidos and the healthy controls. However, they argued that little is known about abnormal androgen level values in both pre- and postmenopausal women and whether those values directly correlate with sexual function. [28] In a novel study, Hashemian et al. found no direct correlation between sexual function and serum levels of androstanediol glucuronide in otherwise healthy married women. Thus, they concluded that the libido of a married woman probably cannot be predicted based on blood levels of androstanediol glucuronide. Moreover, they found no relationship between serum levels of T3, T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and sexual dysfunction in otherwise healthy married women. [30]

Yet, the role of decreased androgen levels and lowered libido cannot be denied. However, in the context of child-rearing, the mentioned physiologic decline in testosterone levels in both male and female parents contributes to infant care and maximizes the level of attention and affection parents give to the newborn.

Hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species

Mammalian paternal care is less common than maternal care due to differences in selective pressure during evolution. Given the specialized female reproductive physiology, female mammals can rarely increase their reproductive success by initiating a new pregnancy; however, males can increase their reproductive success by caring for offspring or by mating with other females. Paternal behavior in mammals has evolved separately in a number of linages where both parents are involved in parenting behavior due to environmental conditions. [1] Fewer studies have been conducted on the role of prolactin in mammalian male reproductive behavior, especially in relation to its probable effect on regulating paternal behavior after childbirth. [31]

Paternal care increases survival of the offspring in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), [7] dwarf hamsters (Phodpus cambelli), [32] cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), [33] marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), [34] and meerkats (Suricata suricatta). [35]

According to Lonstein and De Vries, mice (Mus musculus) can show great variability in parental behavior across different studies. This is probably due to several factors including genetic and domestication influences. [7] The hormonal basis of parental behavior in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus) is not fully understood; however, plasma prolactin levels are found to be higher in fathers than in other males. [36]

Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are probably the most extensively studied species with regard to maternal and paternal responsiveness. [7] Numerous studies demonstrated the influence of postnatal gonadal hormones on paternal responsiveness in adult male rats. The most common finding was that gonadectomy before puberty decreases infanticide and increases parental behavior. [37],[38],[39] Moreover, prolactin was found to affect parental responsiveness in adult rats [40] and was found in a greater ratio in juvenile males than juvenile females. [41]

The Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit biparental behavior as well. The exact underlying hormonal mechanism is unknown; however, an increase in testosterone after mating and its precipitous decline after birth of the offspring concomitant with an increase in plasma prolactin levels has been suggested to play a significant role in regulating parental behavior. [42] However, a study on the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) indicated that administration of dopamine agonists, which suppresses prolactin production, failed to alter paternal behavior. [43] This may be due to the fact that numerous mechanisms are involved in the regulation of prolactin levels. Although the inhibitory effects of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in prolactin secretion have been well-established, other factors within the brain and peripheral organs have been known to stimulate prolactin secretion as well. [44] For instance, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, vasopressin, serotonin, angiotensin II, prolactin-releasing peptide, and oxytocin are among the candidates suggested for being prolactin-releasing factors. [45]

Ziegler and Snowdon found elevated prolactin levels in male cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) during the mate's third gestational month. Moreover, an experienced male showed elevated prolactin levels and some inexperienced males demonstrated elevated prolactin just before parturition, suggesting noninfant cues were important as well. [33] Dixson and George also found significant higher prolactin levels in male cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) who were fathers compared to nonfathers. [46]

However, Almond et al. who suppressed prolactin production in paternally experienced common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) found that experienced male marmosets could probably express paternal behavior in the absence of high prolactin levels normally seen after the birth of the offspring. [47] This may be due to the fact that parental behavior is affected by other variables such as experiential, cognitive, and social variables as well as biological variables, [48] and the parental behavior of nonhuman primates, particularly of those phylogenetically closest to humans (i.e., monkeys and apes as well as common marmosets) is more sensitive to experiential, cognitive, and social variables than the parental behavior of the other mammals. [49]

Hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans

Prolactin is probably best known for its role in lactation and maternal nurturing behavior; however, it is influential over approximately 300 biological functions across species [44],[50] leading it to be identified as the most versatile of all hormones. [24] Moreover, Ben-Jonathan et al. suggested that prolactin serves a dual function - both as a circulatory hormone and as a cytokine. [51] Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone that is synthesized and secreted from lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland, decidua, myometrium, breast, lymphocytes, leukocytes, and prostate. [44],[51] Evidence from cross-species studies suggests that prolactin has independently evolved to promote paternal investment in three distinct lineages: fish, birds, and mammals. [4] It may be very likely that prolactin has evolved to serve a similar function in the hominin lineage to the modern Homo sapiens.[52],[53]

Similar to other species, human fathers and mothers show gender-specific parental behavior. [23] For instance, fathers seem to engage in more playful interactions that induce high positive arousals [54] while mothers prefer to establish face-to-face and affectionate interactions. [55] Thus, maternal and paternal behaviors most probably prepare children for different elements of future social behavior. Indeed, maternal care establishes a sense of safety within children while paternal behavior prepares them for elements of novelty and excitement, which are essential components of lasting social relationships. [23]

Little research has been done on hormonal and behavioral changes that expectant fathers undergo prior to and after the birth of their children. [2],[25] One of the most comprehensive studies conducted on hormonal changes in male parents after childbirth was by Storey et al. The researchers studied the hormonal levels of testosterone, estrogen, prolactin, and cortisol in 33 parents at intervals prior to and after the birth of their children. They observed elevation and decline in the levels of the mentioned hormones in men during their partner's pregnancy. They found a 33% drop in testosterone levels in male parents during the first 3 weeks in the postpartum period. However, testosterone levels returned to normal by the time the infant was 4-7-week-old. The researchers suggested that the mentioned decline in males' testosterone levels after becoming a parent probably promoted attachment and regulated paternal behavior. Additionally, estrogen levels were found to be increased 30 days before birth and remained at the same level for the whole 12 weeks of follow-up in male parents. Thus, the higher levels of estrogen in men are probably responsible for more nurturing behavior in new fathers. Furthermore, results showed that prolactin levels rose by approximately 20% in men during the 3 weeks in the postpartum period. Moreover, men who expressed the greatest desire to comfort the crying baby were shown to have the highest prolactin levels and the greatest reduction in testosterone. Additionally, higher cortisol levels were detected in both parents after childbirth. Thus, the study implicated that men probably have similar stage-specific differences in hormone levels as women including higher concentrations of prolactin and cortisol after childbirth and lower postnatal concentrations of testosterone and estradiol. [25]

Gordon et al. studied plasma prolactin and oxytocin levels of 43 male parents at the second month and sixth month in the postpartum period. Moreover, the relationship between paternal prolactin and oxytocin profile and child-father interaction in a social context was evaluated. Prolactin and oxytocin levels showed high individual stability across time and each of these hormones was found to be correlated with a specific aspect of paternal behavior. Prolactin was found to be associated with father-infant exploratory play in a social context, whereas oxytocin was found to be related to father-infant affect synchrony during social play. Thus, the results indicated that prolactin and oxytocin probably have a crucial role in the development of paternal behavior in humans. [3]

Gettler et al. studied the prolactin blood levels of new fathers and compared the values with those of male partners of the same age who were not fathers. The results indicated that fathers had higher prolactin levels than male partners who were not parents. Moreover, higher prolactin levels were measured in the blood samples of fathers of infants in comparison with fathers of older children. [24]

Fleming et al. evaluated plasma prolactin concentrations as well as salivary testosterone and cortisol levels prior to and after the crying of the newborn in order to determine the responsiveness of new fathers and nonfathers toward infant cues. They found that fathers with higher, as opposed to lower, prolactin levels were more alert and more responsive to the baby's cries. Moreover, fathers and nonfathers who had lower testosterone levels were more sympathetic and responsive to the infant's cries. The researchers concluded that similar to a number of other biparental species, human fathers were more responsive to infant cues than nonfathers and this was most probably due to both hormones and caregiving experiences. [26]

Moreover, Gettler et al. investigated the effects of paternal care on hormones. In other words, they evaluated the hormonal responses of fathers after interacting with their offspring. Testosterone, cortisol, and prolactin levels in the saliva and plasma were studied at the baseline and 30 min and 60 min after child-father interaction. The results indicated that prolactin profile declined from the baseline after paternal behavior. Fathers who spent more time in daily caregiving and men who thought their spouses evaluated them positively as parental caregivers experienced a larger decline in prolactin levels in comparison with other male parents. Moreover, first-time fathers had a larger decrease in both prolactin and cortisol levels in comparison with experienced fathers. Moreover, testosterone levels did not show a variation at the baseline and after father-infant interaction. Thus, a psychobiological connection between men's perceptions of themselves as fathers and their hormonal responsiveness to parental care was suggested. [51]


Social bonds and affiliations in humans develop within a matrix of biobehavioral attunement. [23] Indeed, the significant role of parental love and care-giving as an incentive force for developmental processes and as a delicate element of survival, safety, and well-being of the young cannot be denied. [56] The findings of studies on hormonal bases of paternal care in nonhuman animals yielded a rich source of hypotheses for studying paternal behavior in humans. [57] Studies on nonhuman mammalian species and emerging data in humans suggest that the formation of paternal care as well as maternal behavior is regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms in which prolactin plays an integral role and lays the foundation for the development of future social and emotional competencies.

According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amount of prolactin level after childbirth in male parents is probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans. [3],[24],[25],[26],[58] Additionally, a decline in the testosterone level in male parents after childbirth was observed. [25],[26] Moreover, the prolactin level was found to be correlated with father-infant interaction in a social context, and fathers with higher prolactin profiles were found to be more responsive to baby cues. [25],[26],[58] Additionally, elevated paternal prolactin levels after the birth of the infant probably not only induce parental behavior over time but also decrease the parents' libidos. In this way, parents are probably more involved in parental care and their fertility behavior is reduced. This happens in the context of child-rearing and facilitates behavioral and emotional states associated with successful infant care. Indeed, neuroendocrine mechanisms and behavioral expressions establish the way individuals function in social relationships later throughout their lives. [23] According to a 30-year longitudinal study, appropriate caregiving in infancy and childhood predicted better future social adaptation, emotional regulation, social competence, and more secure romantic relationships. [59] Thus, it can be argued that beyond each physiological mechanism lies a level of wisdom, known as well as yet to be discovered, which encompasses all science and intrigues scientists time and again.

To our knowledge, the current study is the first to review the regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in humans and nonhuman mammalian species. Since clinical studies were limited in number, much further research is required to provide a conceptual framework for establishing neuroendocrine underlying of paternal behavior in human male parents. Moreover, the available clinical studies relied on peripheral measures of prolactin in the plasma and saliva. Thus, the inability to directly measure prolactin at the brain neurochemical level presented a limitation. Hopefully, molecular measurement techniques in the future will enable researchers to overcome such obstacles and give a more clear picture regarding neuroendocrine correlates of affiliative behavior and social bonds. Furthermore, measuring all the hormonal levels of estrogen, testosterone, oxytocin, vasopressin, and glucocorticoids at the baseline and different time intervals in the postpartum period is suggested for further research.

Financial support and sponsorship

Financial support was solely provided by the authors.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.[60]

 :: References Top

Cabrera NJ, Tamis-LeMonda CS. Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives. 2 nd ed. New York: Routledge; 2013. p. 91-119.  Back to cited text no. 1
Wynne-Edwards KE. Hormonal changes in mammalian fathers. Horm Behav 2001;40:139-45.  Back to cited text no. 2
Gordon I, Zagoory-Sharon O, Leckman JF, Feldman R. Prolactin, Oxytocin, and the development of paternal behavior across the first six months of fatherhood. Horm Behav 2010;58:513-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Schradin C, Arzenberger G. Prolactin, the hormone of paternity. News Physiol Sci 1999;14:223-31.  Back to cited text no. 4
Leuner B, Glasper ER, Gould E. Parenting and plasticity. Trends Neurosci 2010;33:465-73.   Back to cited text no. 5
Kleiman DG, Malcolm JR. The evolution of male parental investment in mammals. In: Gubernick DG, Klopfer PH, editors. Parental Care in Mammals. New York: Plenum Press; 1981. p. 347-87.  Back to cited text no. 6
Lonstein JS, De Vries GJ. Sex differences in the parental behavior of rodents. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2000;24:669-86.  Back to cited text no. 7
Fernandez-Duque E, Valeggia CR, Mendoza SP. The biology of paternal care in human and non-human primates. Annu Rev Anthropol 2009;38:115-30.   Back to cited text no. 8
Kirkpatrick B, Kim JW, Insel TR. Limbic system fos expression associated with paternal behavior. Brain Res 1994;658:112-8.   Back to cited text no. 9
Wang ZX, Liu Y, Young LJ, Insel TR. Hypothalamic vasopressin gene expression increases in both males and females postpartum in a biparental rodent. J Neuroendocrinol 2000;12:111-20.  Back to cited text no. 10
de Jong TR, Chauke M, Harris BN, Saltzman W. From here to paternity: Neural correlates of the onset of paternal behavior in California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Horm Behav 2009;56:220-31.  Back to cited text no. 11
Muehlenbein MP. Human Evolutionary Biology. 1 st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010. p. 338-50.  Back to cited text no. 12
Bridges RS, Numan M, Ronsheim PM, Mann PE, Lupini CE. Central prolactin infusions stimulate maternal behavior in steroid-treated, nulliparous female rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990;87:8003-7.   Back to cited text no. 13
Insel TR. Oxytocin and Maternal Behavior, Mammalian Parenting: Biochemical, Neurobiological and Behavioral Determinants. New York: Oxford University Press; 1990. p. 60-117.  Back to cited text no. 14
Pryce CR, Martin RD, Skuse D. Motherhood in Human and Nonhuman Primates. New York: Karger; 1995. p. 69-114.  Back to cited text no. 15
Rosenblatt JS, Olufowobi A, Siegel HI. Effects of pregnancy hormones on maternal responsiveness, responsiveness to estrogen stimulation of maternal behavior, and the lordosis response to estrogen stimulation. Horm Behav 1998;33:104-14.  Back to cited text no. 16
Numan M. Motivational systems and the neural circuitry of maternal behavior in the rat. Dev Psychobiol 2007;49:12-21.  Back to cited text no. 17
Bridges RS. Endocrine regulation of parental behavior in rodents. In: Krasengor NA, Bridges RS, editors. Mammalian Parenting: Biochemical, Neurobiological, and Behavioral Determinants. New York: Oxford University Press; 1990. p. 93-117.  Back to cited text no. 18
Bridges RS. Neurobiology of the Parental Brain. Amsterdam: Academic Press; 2008. p. 227-47.  Back to cited text no. 19
Fleming AS, Ruble D, Krieger H, Wong PY. Hormonal and experiential correlates of maternal responsiveness during pregnancy and the puerperium in human mothers. Horm Behav 1997;31:145-58.  Back to cited text no. 20
Numan M, Insel TR. The Neurobiology of Parental Behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2003. p. 8-12.  Back to cited text no. 21
Feldman R, Gordon I, Schneiderman I, Weisman O, Zagoory-Sharon O. Natural variations in maternal and paternal care are associated with systematic changes in oxytocin following parent-infant contact. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2010;35:1133-41.   Back to cited text no. 22
Feldman R. Oxytocin and social affiliation in humans. Horm Behav 2012;61:380-91.  Back to cited text no. 23
Gettler AT, McDade TW, Feranil AB, Kuzawa CW. Prolactin, fatherhood, and reproductive behavior in human males. Am J Phys Anthropol 2012;148:362-70.  Back to cited text no. 24
Storey AE, Walsh CJ, Quinton RL, Wynne-Edwards KE. Hormonal correlates of paternal responsiveness in new and expectant fathers. Evol Hum Behav 2000;21:79-95.  Back to cited text no. 25
Fleming AS, Corter C, Stallings J, Steiner M. Testosterone and prolactin are associated with emotional responses to infant cries in new fathers. Horm Behav 2002;42:399-413.  Back to cited text no. 26
Wylie K, Rees M, Hackett G, Anderson R, Bouloux PM, Cust M, et al. Androgens, health and sexuality in women and men. Maturitas 2010;67:275-89.   Back to cited text no. 27
Turna B, Apaydin E, Semerci B, Altay B, Cikili N, Nazli O. Women with low libido: Correlation of decreased androgen levels with female sexual function index. Int J Impot Res 2005;17:148-53.  Back to cited text no. 28
Riley A, Riley E. Controlled studies on women presenting with sexual disorders: I. Endocrine status. J Sex Marital Ther 2000;26:269-83.  Back to cited text no. 29
Hashemian F, Noroozi M, Pashang B. Can we predict the Libido of a married woman based on her plasma Androstanediol Glucoronide levels? (2013, September). In: Proceedings of the 13 th Asian Conference on Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP 2013); Haiphong City, Vietnam. p. 606.   Back to cited text no. 30
Clutton-brock TH. The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1991. p. 7-12.  Back to cited text no. 31
Wyne-Edwards KE, Lisk RD. Differential effects of paternal presence on pup survival in two species of dwarf hamster (Phodopus sungorus and Phodopus campbelli). Physiol Behav 1989;45:465-9.  Back to cited text no. 32
Ziegler TE, Snowdon CT. Preparental hormone levels and parenting experience in male Cotton-top Tamarins, Saguinus oedipus. Horm Behav 2000;38:159-67.  Back to cited text no. 33
Ziegler TE, Prudom SL, Zahed SR, Parlow AF, Wegner F. Prolactin′s mediative role in male parenting in parentally experienced marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Horm Behav 2009;56:436-43.   Back to cited text no. 34
Carlson AA, Russel AF, Young AJ, Jordan NR, McNeilly AS, Parlow AF, et al. Elevated prolactin levels immediately precede decisions to babysit by male meerkat helpers. Horm Behav 2006; 50:94-100.  Back to cited text no. 35
Gubernick DJ, Nelson RJ. Prolactin and paternal behavior in the biparental California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. Horm Behav 1989;23:203-10.  Back to cited text no. 36
Quadagno DM, McCullough J, Ho GK, Spevak AM. Neonatal gonadal hormones: Effect on maternal and sexual behavior in the female rat. Physiol Behav 1973;11:251-4.  Back to cited text no. 37
Brown RE. Social and hormonal factors influencing infanticide and it suppression in adult male Long-Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus). J Comp Psychol 1986;100:155-61.  Back to cited text no. 38
Lonstein JS, Quadros PS, Wagner CK. Effects of neonatal RU486 on adult sexual, parental, and fearful behaviors in rats. Behav Neurosci 2001;115:58-70.  Back to cited text no. 39
Bridges RS. Biochemical basis of parental behavior in the rat. Adv Study Behav 1996;25:215-42.  Back to cited text no. 40
Kinsley CH, Bridges RS. Prolactin modulation of the maternal-like behavior displayed by juvenile rats. Horm Behav 1988;22:49-65.  Back to cited text no. 41
Reburn CJ, Wynne-Edwards KE. Hormonal changes in males of a naturally biparental and a uniparental mammal. Horm Behav 1999; 35:163-76.  Back to cited text no. 42
Brooks PL, Vella ET, Wynne-Edwards KE. Dopamine agonist treatment before and after the birth reduces prolactin concentration but does not impair paternal responsiveness in Djungarian hamsters, Phodopud campbelli. Horm Behav 2005;47:358-66.  Back to cited text no. 43
Freeman ME, Kanyicska B, Lerant A, Nagy G. Prolactin: Structure, function, and regulation of secretion. Physiol Rev 2000;80:1523-631.  Back to cited text no. 44
Kennett JE, McKee DT. Oxytocin: An emerging regulator of prolactin secretion in the female rat. J Neuroendocrinol 2012;24:403-12.  Back to cited text no. 45
Dixson AF, George L. Prolactin and parental behavior in a male new world primate. Nature 1982;299:551-3.  Back to cited text no. 46
Almond RE, Brown GR, Keverne EB. Suppression of prolactin does not reduce infant care by parentally experienced male common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Horm Behav 2006;49:673-80.  Back to cited text no. 47
Maestripieri D. The biology of human parenting: Insights from nonhuman primates. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1999;23:411-22.  Back to cited text no. 48
Pyrce CR. Socialization, hormones, and the regulation of maternal behavior in nonhuman primates. Adv Study Behav   Back to cited text no. 49
1996;25:423-73.  Back to cited text no. 50
Bole-Feysot C, Goffin V, Edery M, Binart N, Kelly PA. Prolactin (PRL) and its receptor: Actions, signal transduction pathways and phenotypes observed in PRL receptor knockout mice. Endocr Rev 1998;19:225-68.  Back to cited text no. 51
Ben-Jonathan N, Mershon JL, Allen DL, Steinmetz RW. Extrapituitary prolactin: Distribution, regulation, functions, and clinical aspects. Endocr Rev 1996;17:639-69.  Back to cited text no. 52
Gettler LT. Direct male care and hominin evolution: Why male-child interaction is more than a nice social idea. Am Anthropol 2010;112: 7-21.  Back to cited text no. 53
Gray PB, Anderson KG. Fatherhood: Evolution and Human Paternal Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2010. p. 26-31.  Back to cited text no. 54
Lamb ME. The Role of the Father in Child Development. 5 th ed. New York: Wiley; 2010. p. 94-154.  Back to cited text no. 55
Feldman R, Bamberger E, Kanat-Maymon Y. Parent-specific reciprocity from infancy to adolescence shapes children′s social competence and dialogical skills. Attach Hum Dev 2013;15:407-23.  Back to cited text no. 56
Gerhardt S. Why Love Matters: How Affection Shapes a Baby′s Brain. 1 st ed. East Sussex: Routledge; 2004. p. 193-219.  Back to cited text no. 57
Rilling JK. The neural and hormonal bases of human parental care. Neuropsychologia 2013;51:731-47.  Back to cited text no. 58
Gettler LT, McDade TW, Agustin SB, Kuzawa CW. Short-term changes in fathers′ hormones during father-child play: Impacts of paternal attitudes and experience. Horm Behav 2011; 60:599-606.  Back to cited text no. 59
Sroufe LA. Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attach Hum Dev 2005;7:349-67.  Back to cited text no. 60

This article has been cited by
1 Prenatal prolactin predicts postnatal parenting attitudes and brain structure remodeling in first-time fathers
Elizabeth C. Aviv, Sofia I. Cardenas, Gabriel León, Yael H. Waizman, Cassin Gonzales, Genesis Flores, Magdalena Martínez García, Darby E. Saxbe
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2023; : 106332
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 The influence of manual semen collection in male trained dogs (Canis familiaris), in the presence or absence of a female in estrus, on the concentrations of cortisol, oxytocin, prolactin and testosterone
Martyna Woszczylo, Antoni Szumny, Piotr Knap, Tadeusz Jezierski, Wojciech Nizanski, Agata Kokocinska, Marcin J. Skwark, Michal Dzieciol, Sankarganesh Devaraj
PLOS ONE. 2023; 18(2): e0278524
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Mother–Young Bonding: Neurobiological Aspects and Maternal Biochemical Signaling in Altricial Domesticated Mammals
Cécile Bienboire-Frosini, Míriam Marcet-Rius, Agustín Orihuela, Adriana Domínguez-Oliva, Patricia Mora-Medina, Adriana Olmos-Hernández, Alejandro Casas-Alvarado, Daniel Mota-Rojas
Animals. 2023; 13(3): 532
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Neurobiological Correlates of Fatherhood During the Postpartum Period: A Scoping Review
Mónica Sobral, Francisca Pacheco, Beatriz Perry, Joana Antunes, Sara Martins, Raquel Guiomar, Isabel Soares, Adriana Sampaio, Ana Mesquita, Ana Ganho-Ávila
Frontiers in Psychology. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Resident and Non-resident Father Involvement, Coparenting, and the Development of Children’s Self-Regulation Among Families Facing Economic Hardship
Lauren E. Altenburger
Frontiers in Psychology. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 The elusive role of prolactin in the sociality of the naked mole-rat
James D. Gilbert, Stephen J. Rossiter, Nigel C. Bennett, Christopher G. Faulkes
Hormones and Behavior. 2022; 143: 105196
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Prolactin promotes parental responses and alters reproductive axis gene expression, but not courtship behaviors, in both sexes of a biparental bird
Victoria S. Farrar, Laura Flores, Rechelle C. Viernes, Laura Ornelas Pereira, Susan Mushtari, Rebecca M. Calisi
Hormones and Behavior. 2022; 144: 105217
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Pain and pleasure in the birthing room: understanding the phenomenon of orgasmic birth
Phoebe Crossing
British Journal of Midwifery. 2021; 29(8): 464
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Father–newborn vocal interaction: A contribution to the theory of innate intersubjectivity
Caroline Boiteau, Theano Kokkinaki, Carol Sankey, Aude Buil, Maya Gratier, Emmanuel Devouche
Infant and Child Development. 2021; 30(5)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Hormonal and neural correlates of care in active versus observing poison frog parents
Eva K. Fischer, Lauren A. O'Connell
Hormones and Behavior. 2020; 120: 104696
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Preparation for fatherhood: A role for olfactory communication during human pregnancy?
C. Allen, K.D. Cobey, J. Havlícek, F.P. Singleton, A.C. Hahn, C.N. Moran, S.C. Roberts
Physiology & Behavior. 2019; 206: 175
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow