Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 4009  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Articlesmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Etcetera Contact
 :: Next article
 :: Previous article 
 :: Table of Contents
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::  [PDF Not available] *
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
 ::  Introduction
 ::  Material and Methods
 ::  Results
 ::  Discussion
 ::  References
 ::  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded0    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Year : 1978  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 103-105

Indirect haemagglutination test in intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Bombay-400 012., India

Correspondence Address:
Ajita P Mehta
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Bombay-400 012.
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 722602

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

 :: Abstract 

Indirect haemagglutination test has been evaluated in cases of amoebiasis. It gave positive percentages of 90, 91.8 and 68.1 in amoebic liver abscess, chronic amoebic dysentery and amoebic hepatitis respectively. The test was negative in acute amoebic dysentery group. Positivity of 4.3% was obtained in ap­perently healthy subjects. Details regarding above findings, are presented.

How to cite this article:
Mehta AP, Deodhar LP, Gujarathi P S. Indirect haemagglutination test in intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis. J Postgrad Med 1978;24:103-5

How to cite this URL:
Mehta AP, Deodhar LP, Gujarathi P S. Indirect haemagglutination test in intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 1978 [cited 2023 May 30];24:103-5. Available from:

 :: Introduction Top

Amoebiasis is a world wide problem. Its incidence in India has been reported to vary from 3.87 to 58% as quoted by Guirges, [1] and about 10-20% of people are supposed to be healthy carriers in an endemic area.

Diagnostic utility of several serologic tests in bacterial infections is well esta­blished. Its application in parasitological infections has become the subject of re­cent interest and importance, especially to the investigators in tropical countries where the parasitic diseases are common. The various immunological tests like Bentonite flocculation test, counter-im­munoelectrophoresis, Indirect haemagglu­tination (IHA) test, complement fixa­tion test etc. have been evaluated by several workers. [2],[5],[7] The IHA test has been recommended by several investiga­tors as it seems to provide a sensitive and reproducible means of detecting anti­bodies against Entamoeba histolytica. [7]

 :: Material and Methods Top

Antigen--prepared from axenically grown E. histolytica strain HK-9 in Dia­mond's medium was obtained from ICN/ para-Tek Medical Diagnostic products, Portland, U.S.A. This antigen contained approximately ten million amoebae and 1.8-2 mg. of nitrogen per ml. of the origi­nal solution and 0.1 ml. of this solution was lyophilized in each vial. Preparation of various reagent solutions and dilluents, tanning of the red blood cells, sensitiza­tion of tanned cells were carried out as per instructions given along with the antigen, from ICN Medical Diagnostic products. The indirect haemagglutina­tion test was performed according to microtitre procedure of Kessel et al [2] and the serum was considered positive if IHA titre was 1:128 or greater. [2] Sera which showed positive reaction of 1:512 were retested with higher dilution.

Human Sera -serum samples from 190 individuals were tested and were group­ed as (a) Amoebic liver abscess (30 cases) ; (b) Amoebic hepatitis (44 cases) ; (c) Chronic amoebic dysentery (37 cases); (d) Acute amoebic dysentery (33 cases) and (e) Apparently healthy sub­jects (46 cases).

Examination of stool samples was carri­ed out in all the cases.

 :: Results Top

The results of the IHA test in subjects suffering from intestinal and extra­intestinal forms of amoebiasis, and in control subjects are shown in [Table 1].

The IHA test detected 90.0% and 91.8% cases of amoebic liver abscess and chronic amoebic dysentery respectively. In 4.3 per cent of cases, in the control group the test was positive.

Examination of stool sample showed the presence of trophozoites or cysts in all the samples of acute dysentery group while in chronic variety, 80% showed the parasite in stool sample. Amongst the amoebic liver abscess cases, only in 13%, trophozoites of E. histolytica were de­monstrated in the aspirated pus.

 :: Discussion Top

The indirect haemagglutionation test in the present series detected 90 per cent cases of amoebic liver abscess. The posi­tivity rate compares favourably with the findings of other investigators who re­ported it to be positive in 75-100 per cent cases. [1],[6],[7] The results in chronic amoebic dysentery were encouraging while in acute amoebic dysentery group the test was negative in all the cases. It is possible that cases of acute amoebic dysentery were detected early, there was no tissue invasion in these cases and hence no production of detectable anti­bodies.

As quoted by Maddison, [4] "The duration of infection necessary for the develop­ment of detectable antibodies is not known, but the occurrence of relapse or re-infection in patients known to have antibodies suggests that these are not pro­tective." Several factors may influence the antibody response such as the ability of the host to recognise the parasite as an antigen and to respond to this antigenic stimulus; the stage of the disease; the degree of invasion of the host and the number of amoebae entering the blood stream . [3]

`Amoebic hepatitis' is more of a clinical entity and there is no definite test to prove the diagnosis except for a post mortem. In the present series, the test was positive in 68.1 per cent of cases while the results of other workers vary from 54 to 85 per cent. [7]

Apperently healthy (control) group consisted of staff members working in the department of Microbiology and some voluntary blood donors and thus belong­ed to a comparatively high socio-econo­mic status. The IHA test was positive in 4.3 per cent of cases. Hence the results of the present study indicate that the IHA test is a good tool for diagnosis of invasive amoebiasis.

 :: References Top

1.Guirges. S. Y.: 'A survey of intestinal parasites in Maharashtra State with special reference to amoebiasis and its hemag­glutination test.' Thesis for The Degree of "Master of Science" in Microbiology sub­mitted to Bombay University. Part II­ Amoebiasis and hemagglutination test­Chapter III pages 223, 253, 1974.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Kessel, J. F., Lewis, W. P., Pasquel, C.M. and Turner, J, A.: Indirect hemag­glutination and complement fixation tests in amoebiasis. Amer. J. Trop. Med. and Hyg., 14: 540-550, 1965.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Krupp, I. M,: Antibody response in in­testinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis. Amer. J. Trop. Med. and Hyg., 19: 57-62, 1970.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Maddison, S. E., Powell, S. J. and Elsdon­Dew, R.: Application of serology to the epidemiology of amoebiasis. Amer. J. Trop. Med. and Hyg.. 14: 554-557, 1965.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Mahajan, R . C., Ganguli, N. K., Chhabra, M. B., Chitkara, N. L. and Chhuttani, P. N.: Evaluation of Serameha, counter­immuno electrophoresis and bentonite flocculation test in rapid diagnosis of inva­sive amoebiasis. Ind. J. Path. and Microbiol., 19: 123-12G, 1976.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Prakash, 0., Sama, S. K., Vinayak, V. K. and Bhalla, I.: Evaluation of a new anti­gen for hemagglutination tests in amoe­biasis. Amer. J. Trop. Med. and Hyg., 19: 418-421, 1970.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Vinayak, V, K., Om Prakash, Talwar, G. P., Tandon, B. N. and Mohapatra, L. N.: Significance of the Indirect Haemag­glutination test for the Diagnosis of Amoebiasis. Ind. J. Med. Res., 62: 1171­1175. 1974.  Back to cited text no. 7    


  [Table 1]


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow