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Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-based classification of diabetes pharmacotherapy


1 Department of Endocrinology, Post-graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital and BRIDE, Karnal, Haryana, India
3 Department of Rheumatology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
D Dutta,
Department of Endocrinology, Post-graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

The current classification of both diabetes and antidiabetes medication is complex, preventing a treating physician from choosing the most appropriate treatment for an individual patient, sometimes resulting in patient-drug mismatch. We propose a novel, simple systematic classification of drugs, based on their effect on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is the master regular of energy metabolism, an energy sensor, activated when cellular energy levels are low, resulting in activation of catabolic process, and inactivation of anabolic process, having a beneficial effect on glycemia in diabetes. This listing of drugs makes it easier for students and practitioners to analyze drug profiles and match them with patient requirements. It also facilitates choice of rational combinations, with complementary modes of action. Drugs are classified as stimulators, inhibitors, mixed action, possible action, and no action on AMPK activity. Metformin and glitazones are pure stimulators of AMPK. Incretin-based therapies have a mixed action on AMPK. Sulfonylureas either inhibit AMPK or have no effect on AMPK. Glycemic efficacy of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, colesevelam, and bromocriptine may also involve AMPK activation, which warrants further evaluation. Berberine, salicylates, and resveratrol are newer promising agents in the management of diabetes, having well-documented evidence of AMPK stimulation medicated glycemic efficacy. Hence, AMPK-based classification of antidiabetes medications provides a holistic unifying understanding of pharmacotherapy in diabetes. This classification is flexible with a scope for inclusion of promising agents of future.


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    -  Dutta D
    -  Kalra S
    -  Sharma M
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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow