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  :: Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2017
Volume 63 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-62

Online since Wednesday, January 11, 2017

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EDITORIAL  

Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with dyslexia: A look at current research p. 1
S Karande, A Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.198138  PMID:28079041
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Role of demographic and job-related variables in determining work-related quality of life of hospital employees p. 4
K Shukla, S Shahane, W D'Souza
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.192794  PMID:27779152
Background: Considering a huge working population in health sector faced with stressful work life, limited autonomy in work and declining work contentment calls for an overemphasis on evaluating and monitoring their satisfaction associated with work-related quality of life (WRQoL). This study evaluates WRQoL of hospital employees and validates the bilingual (English and Marathi) version of WRQoL scale. Methods: The study was conducted during March-April'2014 on employees of a corporate hospital of Pune, India after ethical approval and informed consent from employees. The bilingual WRQoL scale has been tested for reliability and validity, and WRQoL scores have been reported. Results: A total of 132 hospital employees (mean age 31 [±8] years, 55% males) who participated in the study reported overall moderate WRQoL scores. The scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.82, P < 0.0001) and moderate to high validity. WRQoL did not significantly vary across marital status, family size, and gender. "Stress at work" score of WRQoL increased with age of employees. Higher work experience, employment at higher positions and those working in clinical and diagnostic departments reported a higher WRQoL. Conclusion: WRQoL scale is a reliable and valid instrument. Better WRQoL in employees placed in higher organizational positions indicates a need for focused measures to enhance WRQoL of employees in lower hierarchical levels, especially in control at work and home life interface domains. WRQoL needs regular monitoring for employees in lower positions and aging employees.
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Study of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels in patients with neurological manifestations of dengue p. 11
VK Mehta, R Verma, RK Garg, HS Malhotra, PK Sharma, A Jain
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.188545  PMID:28079042
Context: Pro-inflammatory markers play a key role in the pathogenesis of various Flavivirus infection. Aim: In this study, we evaluated the role of these markers in neurological manifestations of dengue. Settings and Designs: Consecutive dengue cases with different neurological manifestations who presented between August 2012 and July 2014 were studied in hospital-based case-control study. Materials and Methods: Interleukin (IL-6) and IL-8 level were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of dengue cases with different neurological manifestations and also in age- and sex-matched controls. Level was analyzed with various parameters and outcomes. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0 by applying appropriate statistical methods. P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Out of the 40 enrolled cases of dengue with neurological manifestations, 29 had central nervous system and 11 had peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations. In CNS group, both IL-6 and IL-8 (CSF and serum) were significantly elevated (P < 0.001), whereas CSF IL-6 (P = 0.008), serum IL-6 (P = 0.001), and serum IL-8 (P = 0.005) were significantly elevated in PNS group. CSF IL-6, serum IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly elevated in poor outcome patients in CNS group (P < 0.05). CSF IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly elevated in CSF dengue positive cases as compared to CSF negative patients (P < 0.05). Cytokine level was not significantly correlated with neuroimaging abnormality in CNS group. Nine patients died and the remainder recovered. Conclusion: Elevated level of IL-6 and IL-8 is associated with different neurological manifestations and poor outcome, but whether they are contributing to neuropathogenesis or simply a correlate of severe disease remains to be determined.
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Outcomes of a conservative approach to management in amoebic liver abscess p. 16
S Kale, AJ Nanavati, N Borle, S Nagral
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.191004  PMID:27652983
Context: Unfortunately, there is confusion among the medical community regarding the management of amoebic liver abscess (ALA). Therapeutic options range from simple pharmacotherapy to use of interventions like a needle or catheter aspiration under ultrasound guidance to surgical intervention. There is a plethora of thresholds for parameters such as the maximum diameter of the abscess and volume on ultrasound examination suggested by various authors to serve as a criterion to help to decide when to use which modality in these cases. Aims: To assess the outcome of patients with uncomplicated ALA treated using a conservative approach. Moreover, to identify factors associated with its failure. Settings and Design: A prospective, observational study was carried out at a large municipal urban health care center over a period of 3-year (2011-2014) in India. Materials and Methods: Patients with uncomplicated ALA were recruited. All patients were managed with pharmacotherapy initially for a period of 72 h. Response to treatment was assessed by resolution of symptoms within the given time frame. Failure to respond was considered an indication for intervention. Needle aspiration was offered to these patients and response assessed within 72 h. Failure to respond to aspiration was considered an indication for catheter drainage. Statistical Analysis Used: Data recorded were entered in a Microsoft Office Excel Sheet and analyzed using the SPSS version 16.0 (IBM). Results: Sixty patients with ALA were included in the study over its duration. Forty-nine (81.67%) patients were managed conservatively, while 11 (18.33%) patients needed an intervention for relief. Patients who required intervention had deranged liver function at presentation, a larger abscess diameter (10.09 ± 2.23 vs. 6.33 ± 1.69 cm P < 0.001) and volume (399.73 ± 244.46 vs. 138.34 ± 117.85 ml, P < 0.001) compared to those who did not need it. Patients that required intervention had a longer length of hospital stay (7.1 ± 2.4 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9 days, P < 0.001). On post hoc analysis, a maximum diameter of >7.7 cm was found to be the optimal criterion to predict the need of intervention in cases of ALA. Conclusions: A conservative approach is effective in the management of ALA for a majority of patients. Failure of conservative management was predicted by the size of the abscess (maximum diameter >7.7 cm). Even in the cases of failure, a gradual step-up with interventions was found to be safe and effective.
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Right atrial mural thrombi: An autopsy study of an under-diagnosed complication at an unusual site p. 21
P Vaideeswar, J Chaudhari, N Karnik, T Sahu, A Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.191008  PMID:27652987
Background: Right atrial mural thrombi (RAMT) are often seen in association with cardiac diseases or foreign bodies. Unusual locations at the flutter isthmus and the atrial appendage prompted us to evaluate our 2-year autopsy data on such thrombi. Materials and Methods: In the 2-year retrospective autopsy, the clinical and autopsy records of patients with RAMT were reviewed, with particular reference to the presence of central venous catheter (CVC), its site of insertion, its type, material and size, its duration of placement, and the drugs infused through the catheter. Results: Of the 940 autopsies performed in 2 years, RAMT was seen in 24 hearts and was related to an insertion of a CVC in 23 patients (95.8%). The risk and/or associated factors for this complication were tunneled and polyethylene catheters, Intensive Care Unit admission, infused drugs, underlying cardiac diseases, and pregnancy. A noteworthy feature was the location of the thrombi in the flutter isthmus in 16 hearts (66.7%) and atrial appendage in another six hearts. Localized endocarditis/myocarditis and pulmonary thromboembolism were observed in six and four patients, respectively.Conclusions: This autopsy study, which has a high incidence of catheter-related RAMT, does not reflect the true incidence but reiterates the importance of guided insertion of central venous and prompt recognition of thrombus formation.
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Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of diabetic nephropathic patients attending nephrology department in a tertiary care hospital p. 24
JV Jose, M Jose, P Devi, R Satish
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.194199  PMID:27853039
Aims: To evaluate the cost of pharmacotherapy and its determinants in diabetic nephropathy (DN) in the nephrology department of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted among adult patients visiting nephrology outpatient department (February-July 2015). Data on demography, investigations, and medications prescribed, direct cost and indirect costs were analyzed. We used Chi-squared test for categorical variables and multivariate linear regression analysis to identify determinants of cost of pharmacotherapy and total cost. Results: Of 100 patients, 50 were above 60 years and 75 were male. Ninety-seven patients had hypertension, which was the most common comorbidity. The majority (60 patients) belonged to Stage 5 DN and 59 patients were on dialysis. The mean number of drugs per patient was 7.60 ± 2.44. The total monthly cost per patient amounted to INR 24,203.27 with total direct cost of INR 21,013.90 (87%) and indirect cost of INR 3189.30 (13%). The monthly cost of dialysis and pharmacotherapy per patient were INR 9060.00 (37%) and INR 2535.98 (11%), respectively. Stage of DN (unstandardized coefficient, B = 7553.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] [6175.09-8932.82], P < 0.001) was a significant determinant of total cost. Number of drugs (B = 636.694, 95% CI [335.670-937.718], P < 0.001) and stage of DN (B = 852.986, 95% CI [297.043-1408.928], P = 0.003) were predictors of cost of pharmacotherapy. Conclusion: Stage of DN and number of drugs prescribed were major determinants of cost of pharmacotherapy.
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An epidemiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A community-based study in Delhi p. 29
B Sinha, Vibha , R Singla, R Chowdhury
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.194200  PMID:27853040
Background: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. Methodology: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was used to interview all subjects and screen for symptoms of COPD. Postbronchodilator spirometry was done to confirm COPD. Statistical Analysis: Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was calculated by multivariable analysis to examine the association of risk factors with COPD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was developed to assess predictability. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.9%). Tobacco smoking was the strongest risk factor associated (aOR 9.48; 95% CI 4.22, 14.13) followed by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), occupational exposure, age, and biomass fuel. Each pack-year of smoking increased 15% risk of COPD. Ex-smokers had 63% lesser risk compared to current smokers. Clinical allergy seems to preclude COPD (aOR 0.06; 95% CI 0.02, 0.37). ROC analysis showed 94.38% of the COPD variability can be assessed by this model (sensitivity 57.4%; positive predictive value 93.3%). Only 48% patients were on treatment. Treatment continuation was impeded by its cost. Conclusion: COPD prevalence in the region of Delhi, India, is high, and our case-finding population study identified a high rate of patients who were not on any treatment. Our study adds to creating awareness on the importance of smoking cessation, early diagnosis of COPD, and the need for regular treatment.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Gossypibomas in India - A systematic literature review p. 36
T Patial, V Thakur, N Vijhay Ganesun, M Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.198153  PMID:28079043
Purpose of Review: Gossypibomas remain a dreaded and unwanted complication of surgical practice. Despite significant interest and numerous guidelines, the number of reported cases remains sparse due to various factors, including potential legal implications. Herein, we review related data from India to ascertain if the problem is better or worse than that reported in world literature. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar, to collect and analyze all case reports and case reviews regarding the condition in India. Results: On analysis of the results, there were 100 publications reporting a total of 126 events. The average patient age was 38.65 years. Average time to discovery was 1225.62 days. Forty-nine percent of reported cases were discovered within the 1 st year. The most common clinical features were pain (73.8%), palpable mass (47.6%), vomiting (35%), abdominal distention (26%), and fever (12.6%). Spontaneous expulsion of the gossypiboma was noted in five cases (3.96%). Transmural migration was seen in 36 cases (28.57%). Conclusions: Despite advancements in surgical approaches and preventive measures, gossypibomas continue to be a cause of significant morbidity. A safe working culture, open communication, teamwork, and an accurate sponge count remain our best defence against this often unpredictable complication of surgery.
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CASE SERIES Top

Ischemic monomelic neuropathy p. 42
S Sheetal, P Byju, P Manoj
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.194221  PMID:27853044
Ischemic monomelic neuropathy is an uncommon complication associated with the creation of arteriovenous (AV) fistula for hemodialysis. After placement of an arteriovenous fistula, there can be shunting of arterial blood away from the distal extremity resulting in damage to distal nerve fibers with acute neurologic symptoms. It can present with global muscle pain, weakness, and a warm hand with palpable pulses starting within the 1 st h after the creation of the AV fistula. It is a devastating complication and can result in permanent disability. We hereby report two cases of ischemic monomelic neuropathy associated with the creation of a brachiocephalic AV fistula for hemodialysis access.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Salmonella pyomyositis with concurrent sacroiliac osteomyelitis presenting as piriformis syndrome: A rare case p. 44
PS Phadke, AR Gandhi, SA More, RP Joshirao
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.192799  PMID:27779154
A-21-year old male admitted with fever and piriformis syndrome, typically associated with gluteal region pain radiating down the thigh, was evaluated and found to have pyomyositis involving piriformis and osteomyelitis with sacroiliac joint affection on radiological imaging. Salmonella serotype typhi was isolated from blood culture. He was treated with intravenous Ceftriaxone for 6 weeks with signs of recovery documented clinically as well as on imaging studies. Salmonella pyomyositis with osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient with no previous hematological or endocrine disorder makes this case an unusual presentation.
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Polyarteritis nodosa presenting as peripheral vascular disease and acute limb ischemia p. 47
A Shukla, A Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.194207  PMID:27853042
Acute limb ischemia and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) are unusual presentations of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Here, we present a case with PVD of both lower limbs leading to foot claudication. Digital subtraction angiography showed narrowing, irregularity, and occlusion of both lower limb arteries with no involvement of the abdomen visceral arteries. Based on significant weight loss, diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg, myalgia, testicular pain, and angiographic abnormalities in medium-sized arteries, he was diagnosed as having PAN. He was treated with corticosteroid and bolus intravenous cyclophosphamide following which he had prompt and near-complete recovery of the symptoms without any tissue loss.
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Postradiotherapy small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of base of tongue: An unusual clinical and site presentation p. 50
V Jha, P Sharma, AK Yadav, AK Mandal
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.194209  PMID:27853043
Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the tongue is an extremely rare entity with only seven cases reported in literature till date. These are high-grade tumors with a dismal prognosis. There is much ambiguity regarding the classification, treatment protocols and prognostic factors of these tumors due to the paucity of studies. We describe an exceptionally rare and unusual case of small cell NEC of the base of tongue arising in an elderly man 6 years after receiving radiotherapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma at the same site. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathological examination and supported by immunohistochemical positivity for neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, chromogranin, pan-cytokeratin, and cytokeratin 7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of intraoral NEC arising many years later within the irradiated field of the initial tumor.
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Chorea as unusual complication of fungicide poisoning p. 53
BS Paul, G Paul, J Kaur, G Singh
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.198156  PMID:28079044
Chorea is a rare manifestation of poisoning. We report an index case of a young woman who developed generalized chorea following propiconazole toxin ingestion. As large series on neurological complications of toxic compounds are difficult to be compiled, it is of interest to report our experience. This report adds one more compound to the increasing list of toxic chorea.
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ADVERSE DRUG FORUM Top

Imatinib-induced pleural effusion: A case report p. 55
R Banka, Z Udwadia
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.194227  PMID:27853046
Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and has rarely been reported to cause pleural effusion. We report the case of an 88-year-old male, known case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor on treatment with imatinib, who presented with a 2-week history of cough and dyspnea. He was diagnosed to have a right-sided pleural effusion and thoracentesis of the fluid revealed an exudate with low adenosine deaminase and negative cytology. Withdrawal of the drug lead to resolution of symptoms. We report this case to highlight the side effect profile of imatinib and warn physicians regarding this potential adverse effect which may be mistaken for metastasis or infection.
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CLINICAL IMAGE Top

Hernia of the umbilical cord associated with a patent omphalomesenteric duct p. 58
M Raicevic, I Filipovic, S Sindjic-Antunovic
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.198157  PMID:28079045
Congenital hernia of the cord is a different type of ventral abdominal wall defect in which the bowel usually herniates into the base of normally inserted umbilical cord through a patent umbilical ring. It is rare congenital anomaly with incidence of 1 in 5000. Although it was described as a distinct entity since 1920s it is often misdiagnosed as a small omphalocele. We present an unusal case of term male newborn with umbilical cord hernia associated with patent omphalomesenteric duct. The diagnose was made after birth despite antenatal ultrasound scans and it is managed successfully with uneventful recovery. If this is missdiagnosed, it could cause iatrogenic atresia of the ileum by clamping the umbilical cord after birth.
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LETTERS Top

Stroke mimic: Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of a patient with ictal paralysis p. 60
H Onder
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.198158  PMID:28079046
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Reply to Letter to Editor regarding the article, "Stroke mimic: Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of a patient with ictal paralysis" p. 61
D Sanghvi, C Goyal, J Mani
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.198160  PMID:28079047
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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow